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Drought Tolerant Enterobacter sp./Leclercia adecarboxylata Secretes Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Biomolecules and Enhances the Biological Attributes of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek in Water Deficit Conditions

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School of Chemical Engineering, Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan 38541, Korea
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Department of Agricultural Microbiology, Faculty of Agricultural Sciences, Aligarh Muslim University, Aligarh 202002, India
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Department of Botany and Microbiology, College of Science, King Saud University, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia
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Academy of Biology and Biotechnology, Southern Federal University, 344090 Rostov-on-Don, Russia
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Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Ana Alexandre and Kathrin Wippel
Biology 2021, 10(11), 1149; https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111149
Received: 31 August 2021 / Revised: 31 October 2021 / Accepted: 1 November 2021 / Published: 8 November 2021
Drought stress is one of the most important factors that significantly affects agricultural lands and reduces the production of various crops. Among bean crops, Vigna radiata (mung bean) is a highly nutritious food crop that provides protein, carbohydrates, several essential minerals, amino acids, vitamins, and antioxidants. To resolve the problem of drought-affected agriculture of mung bean, we focused on finding a novel and sustainable solution by using a drought-tolerant bacterium Enterobacter sp./Leclercia adecarboxylata PAB19 that produces significant amounts of plant growth-promoting bioactive compounds and colonizes the roots of mung bean plants. By performing a series of in vitro and in situ (on field) experiments, we conclude that the bacterium PAB19 holds a great potential to mitigate drought stress. Several agriculturally important parameters were enhanced by the bacterial activity which was suppressed by the drought stress induced by a chemical PEG-6000 without bacterial inoculation. Conclusively, strain PAB19 can be applied to alleviate drought stress by improving the biological attributes of mung bean under water-deficit conditions.
Drought or water stress is a limiting factor that hampers the growth and yield of edible crops. Drought-tolerant plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) can mitigate water stress in crops by synthesizing multiple bioactive molecules. Here, strain PAB19 recovered from rhizospheric soil was biochemically and molecularly characterized, and identified as Enterobacter sp./Leclercia adecarboxylata (MT672579.1). Strain PAB19 tolerated an exceptionally high level of drought (18% PEG-6000) and produced indole-3-acetic acid (176.2 ± 5.6 µg mL−1), ACC deaminase (56.6 ± 5.0 µg mL−1), salicylic acid (42.5 ± 3.0 µg mL−1), 2,3-dihydroxy benzoic acid (DHBA) (44.3 ± 2.3 µg mL−1), exopolysaccharide (204 ± 14.7 µg mL−1), alginate (82.3 ± 6.5 µg mL−1), and solubilized tricalcium phosphate (98.3 ± 3.5 µg mL−1), in the presence of 15% polyethylene glycol. Furthermore, strain PAB19 alleviated water stress and significantly (p ≤ 0.05) improved the overall growth and biochemical attributes of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek. For instance, at 2% PEG stress, PAB19 inoculation maximally increased germination, root dry biomass, leaf carotenoid content, nodule biomass, leghaemoglobin (LHb) content, leaf water potential (ΨL), membrane stability index (MSI), and pod yield by 10%, 7%, 14%, 38%, 9%, 17%, 11%, and 11%, respectively, over un-inoculated plants. Additionally, PAB19 inoculation reduced two stressor metabolites, proline and malondialdehyde, and antioxidant enzymes (POD, SOD, CAT, and GR) levels in V. radiata foliage in water stress conditions. Following inoculation of strain PAB19 with 15% PEG in soil, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, water vapor deficit, intrinsic water use efficiency, and photosynthetic rate were significantly improved by 12%, 8%, 42%, 10%, 9% and 16%, respectively. Rhizospheric CFU counts of PAB19 were 2.33 and 2.11 log CFU g−1 after treatment with 15% PEG solution and 8.46 and 6.67 log CFU g−1 for untreated controls at 40 and 80 DAS, respectively. Conclusively, this study suggests the potential of Enterobacter sp./L. adecarboxylata PAB19 to alleviate water stress by improving the biological and biochemical features and of V. radiata under water-deficit conditions. View Full-Text
Keywords: drought stress; Enterobacter sp./L. adecarboxylata; growth regulating substances; Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek; growth improvement; gas exchange parameters drought stress; Enterobacter sp./L. adecarboxylata; growth regulating substances; Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek; growth improvement; gas exchange parameters
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ahmed, B.; Shahid, M.; Syed, A.; Rajput, V.D.; Elgorban, A.M.; Minkina, T.; Bahkali, A.H.; Lee, J. Drought Tolerant Enterobacter sp./Leclercia adecarboxylata Secretes Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Biomolecules and Enhances the Biological Attributes of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek in Water Deficit Conditions. Biology 2021, 10, 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111149

AMA Style

Ahmed B, Shahid M, Syed A, Rajput VD, Elgorban AM, Minkina T, Bahkali AH, Lee J. Drought Tolerant Enterobacter sp./Leclercia adecarboxylata Secretes Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Biomolecules and Enhances the Biological Attributes of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek in Water Deficit Conditions. Biology. 2021; 10(11):1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111149

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ahmed, Bilal, Mohammad Shahid, Asad Syed, Vishnu D. Rajput, Abdallah M. Elgorban, Tatiana Minkina, Ali H. Bahkali, and Jintae Lee. 2021. "Drought Tolerant Enterobacter sp./Leclercia adecarboxylata Secretes Indole-3-acetic Acid and Other Biomolecules and Enhances the Biological Attributes of Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek in Water Deficit Conditions" Biology 10, no. 11: 1149. https://doi.org/10.3390/biology10111149

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