Electrospinning, for the last few decades, has been extensively acknowledged for its ability to manufacture a macro/nanofibrous architecture from biopolymers, which is otherwise difficult to obtain, in a cost effective and user-friendly technique. Such biopolymer nanofibers can be tailored to meet applications such as drug delivery, tissue engineering, filtration, fuel cell, and food packaging etc. Due to their structural uniqueness, chemical and mechanical stability, functionality, super-high surface area-to-volume ratio, and one-dimensional orientation, electrospun biopolymer nanofibers have been proven to be extremely beneficial. A parallel method in nonwoven methodologies called “Solution Blowing” has also become a potential candidate to fabricate a similar type of architecture from biopolymer fibers, and is gaining popularity among researchers, despite its recent advent in early 2000’s. This review chiefly focuses on the fabrication of biopolymer macro/nanofibers via electrospinning and solution blowing, and several applications of such fiber architectures. Biopolymers include plant- and animal-derived biopolymers, such as cellulose, lignin, chitin, and chitosan, as well as proteins and their derivatives. The fabrication of biopolymer fibers from these biopolymers alone or as blends, predominantly with biodegradable polymers like Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyethylene Oxide (PEO), Polyethylene glycol (PEG), poly (lactide-co
-glycolide) (PLGA) etc., or non-biodegradable polymers like polyamide, Polyacrylonitrile (PAN) etc., will be discussed in detail, along with the applications of several composites of such sort.
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