Metal nanoparticles (NPs) are increasingly being used in many areas, e.g., industry, pharmacy, and biomedical engineering. NPs can be obtained through chemical and biological synthesis or using physical methods. AgNPs, AuNPs, CuNPs, FeNPs, MgNPs, SnO2
NPs, and ZnONPs are the most commonly synthesized metal nanoparticles. Many of them have anti-microbial properties and documented activity supported by many tests against some species of pathogenic bacteria, viruses, and fungi. AgNPs, which are used for the production of commercial self-sterilizing packages, are one of the best-explored nanoparticles. Moreover, the EFSA has approved the use of small doses of silver nanoparticles (0.05 mg Ag·kg−1
) to food products. Recent studies have shown that metal NPs can be used for the production of coatings to prevent the spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus, which has caused the global pandemic. Some nanoparticles (e.g., ZnONPs and MgONPs) have the Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) status, i.e., they are considered safe for consumption and can be used for the production of edible coatings, protecting food against spoilage. Promising results have been obtained in research on the use of more than one type of nanometals, which prevents the development of pathogen resistance through various mechanisms of inactivation thereof.
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