Chinese chives (CC) are rich in several antimicrobial constituents including organosulfur compounds, phenolics, and saponins, among others. Herein, we fermented CC juice using an autochthonous isolate, Lactobacillus plantarum
having antimicrobial effects against poultry pathogens toward formulating an antimicrobial feed additive. Following 24 h of fermentation, the antimicrobial and antiviral activities of CC juice were significantly enhanced against poultry pathogens. However, the antioxidant activity of CC juice was significantly decreased following fermentation. Meanwhile, the compositional changes of CC juice following fermentation were also investigated. The total polyphenol, thiol, and allicin contents were significantly decreased in L. plantarum
24 h-fermented CC juice (LpCC) extract; however, total flavonoids increased significantly following fermentation. The untargeted metabolite profiling of nonfermented CC juice (NCC) and LpCC extracts was carried out using the ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-linear trap quadrupole-orbitrap-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS) followed by multivariate analyses. The score plots of principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) based on UHPLC-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS/MS datasets displayed a clear segregation between the LpCC and NCC samples, which suggests their marked metabolomic disparity. Based on the multivariate analysis, we selected 17 significantly discriminant metabolites belonging to the different chemical classes including alkaloid, flavonols, saponins, fatty acids, amino acids, and organic acids. Notably, the flavonols including the glycosides of quercetin, kaempferol, and isorhamnetin as well as the saponins displayed significantly higher relative abundance in LpCC as compared with NCC. This study provides useful insights for the development of a fermented CC juice based antimicrobial feed additive to combat poultry infections.
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