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Open AccessArticle

Antibacterial Activities, Phytochemical Screening and Metal Analysis of Medicinal Plants: Traditional Recipes Used against Diarrhea

1
Key Laboratory of Saline-alkali Vegetation Ecology Restoration, Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Northeast Forestry University, Harbin 150040, China
2
Department of Chemistry, Kohat University of Science and Technology Kohat 26000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
3
Department of Botanical and Environmental Sciences, Kohat University of Science and Technology, Kohat-26000, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan
4
Key Laboratory of Functional Inorganic Material Chemistry, Ministry of Education. School of Chemistry and Material Science, Heilongjiang University, Harbin 150080, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2019, 8(4), 194; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics8040194
Received: 2 September 2019 / Revised: 14 October 2019 / Accepted: 21 October 2019 / Published: 24 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Natural Compounds as Antimicrobial Agents)
The aim of this study was to explore the phytochemical composition, heavy metals analysis and the antibacterial activity of six medicinal plants i.e., Terminalia chebula Retz (fruits), Aegle marmelos L., (fruits), Curcuma longa L., (rhizomes), Syzygium aromaticum L., (flower buds), Piper nigrum L., (seeds), Cinnamomum cassia L., (barks) and its two remedial recipes (recipe 1 and 2) used against diarrhea obtained from the local herbal practitioners (Hakeems). A preliminary phytochemical screening of the above-mentioned plants extract in methanol, chloroform, n-hexane and distilled water revealed the presence of various constituents such as alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins and saponins by using standard procedures. The quantitative phytochemical studies shows that alkaloids, flavonoid and saponins were in maximum amount in Terminalia chebula. The concentration of Cd, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cr, Cu and Zn were investigated by using an atomic absorption spectrometer. The obtained analysis shows that Cr, Fe and Pb were present in the highest concentration in medicinal plants and their recipes. The antibacterial activities of the crude extract found in the recipes of methanol, chloroform, n-hexane and distilled water were analyzed by using agar well disc diffusion assay and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) by broth dilution method against four bacterial strains, namely, E. coli, Salmonella, Shigella and Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), respectively. The maximum zones of inhibition in methanol, water, chloroform and n-hexane extracts were seen in recipe 2 against Shigella (22.16 ± 0.47 mm), recipe 2 against Shigella (20.33 ± 0.24 mm), recipe 1 against Shigella (20.30 ± 0.29 mm) and recipe 2 against E. coli (30.23 ± 0.12 mm), respectively. Furthermore, the recipe extracts are more active against the tested bacterial strains than the extracts from individual plants. Therefore, it is concluded that the use of herbal plants and their recipes are the major source of drugs in a traditional medicinal system to cure different diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: phytochemicals; heavy metals; recipes; MIC; E-coli; Salmonella; Shigella and MRSA phytochemicals; heavy metals; recipes; MIC; E-coli; Salmonella; Shigella and MRSA
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Mahmood, N.; Nazir, R.; Khan, M.; Khaliq, A.; Adnan, M.; Ullah, M.; Yang, H. Antibacterial Activities, Phytochemical Screening and Metal Analysis of Medicinal Plants: Traditional Recipes Used against Diarrhea. Antibiotics 2019, 8, 194.

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