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Open AccessArticle

Fractionation and Hydrolyzation of Avocado Peel Extract: Improvement of Antibacterial Activity

1
Food Engineering Department, Health and Food Science Faculty, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Av. Andrés Bello 720, PO Box 447, Chillan 3780000, Chile
2
Laboratory of Synthesis and Biotransformation of Natural Products, Faculty of Science, Universidad del Bío-Bío, Av. Andrés Bello 720, PO Box 447, Chillan 3780000, Chile
3
Institute of Health Sciences, Universidade Paulista, São Paulo 13565-905, Brazil
4
Faculty of Basic Sciences, Universidad del Bío-Bío Campus Fernando May, Av. Andrés Bello 720, Chillan 3800708, Chile
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antibiotics 2021, 10(1), 23; https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10010023
Received: 27 November 2020 / Revised: 12 December 2020 / Accepted: 14 December 2020 / Published: 30 December 2020
Avocado Hass (Persea americana Mill) peel extract (APE) has the potential as a natural ingredient to substitute for chemical preservatives. The objectives of this study were to assess the phytochemical composition by high-performance liquid chromatography–quadrupole time-of-flight mass/mass spectrometry (HPLC-qTOF-MS/MS), total phenolic content (TPC), proanthocyanidin (PAC) content, and antioxidant activity of the APE, the organic fraction (OF), the aqueous fraction (AF), and the acid-microwave hydrolyzed APE (HAPE), on the antibacterial activity (ABA). The results indicated that APE and OF contained (p ˂ 0.05) a higher phenolic composition and antioxidant activity than AF and HAPE. The ABA specified that Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus were inhibited by all the extracts (minimal inhibitory concentration—MIC ≥ 500 µg/mL), Staphylococcus aureus was only significantly inhibited by APE (≥750 µg/mL), the same MIC was observed for the OF on Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes. The HAPE increased the inhibitory efficiency up to 25% on Escherichia coli and Salmonella spp. (MIC ≥ 750 µg/mL), and 83.34% on L. monocytogenes (MIC ≥ 125 µg/mL) compared to APE (MIC ≥ 750 µg/mL). Also, HAPE inhibited the biofilm formation at the lowest concentration (125 µg/mL); meanwhile, the biofilm disruption showed to be concentration-time-dependent (p ˃ 0.05) compared to amoxicillin. In conclusion, the fractionation and hydrolyzation of APE improved the ABA; thus, those strategies are useful to design new antimicrobial compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: antioxidants; biofilm inhibition; phenolic compounds; avocado peel; microwave antioxidants; biofilm inhibition; phenolic compounds; avocado peel; microwave
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MDPI and ACS Style

Trujillo-Mayol, I.; Casas-Forero, N.; Pastene-Navarrete, E.; Lima Silva, F.; Alarcón-Enos, J. Fractionation and Hydrolyzation of Avocado Peel Extract: Improvement of Antibacterial Activity. Antibiotics 2021, 10, 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10010023

AMA Style

Trujillo-Mayol I, Casas-Forero N, Pastene-Navarrete E, Lima Silva F, Alarcón-Enos J. Fractionation and Hydrolyzation of Avocado Peel Extract: Improvement of Antibacterial Activity. Antibiotics. 2021; 10(1):23. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10010023

Chicago/Turabian Style

Trujillo-Mayol, Igor; Casas-Forero, Nidia; Pastene-Navarrete, Edgar; Lima Silva, Fabiana; Alarcón-Enos, Julio. 2021. "Fractionation and Hydrolyzation of Avocado Peel Extract: Improvement of Antibacterial Activity" Antibiotics 10, no. 1: 23. https://doi.org/10.3390/antibiotics10010023

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