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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Specific and Generic Immunorecognition of Glycopeptide Antibiotics Promoted by Unique and Multiple Orientations of Hapten

1
Immunology Department, I. Mechnikov Research Institute for Vaccines and Sera, 105064 Moscow, Russia
2
Faculty of Chemistry, M. V. Lomonosov MSU, Leninsky Gory, 1, 119991 Moscow, Russia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2019, 9(2), 52; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios9020052
Received: 11 March 2019 / Revised: 27 March 2019 / Accepted: 30 March 2019 / Published: 4 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme-linked Immunoassay)
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Abstract

Conjugation chemistry does not always provide adequate spatial orientation of hapten in immunogens for the best presentation of generic or individual epitopes. In the present study, the influence of unique and multiple orientations of immunizing hapten on the immune response repertoire was compared to select generic recognition system. The glycopeptides, teicoplanin (TPL) and ristomycin (RSM), were conjugated to BSA to produce immunogens with unique and multiple orientations of haptens. Polyclonal antibodies generated against TPL conjugated through a single site were of uniform specificity and demonstrated selective TPL recognition, regardless of the coating conjugates design. The sensitivity (IC50) of 4 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) for TPL varied little within the 3.5–7.4 ng/mL, with a dynamic range of 0.2–100 ng/mL. RSM was coupled to BSA through several glycoside sites that evoked a wider repertoire of response. This first described anti-RSM antibody was selective for RSM in homologous hapten-coated ELISAs with IC50 values in the range 4.2–35 ng/mL. Among the heterologous antigens, periodate-oxidized TPL conjugated to gelatine was selected as the best binder of generic anti-RSM fraction. The developed ELISA showed group recognition of glycopeptides RSM, TPL, eremomycin, and vancomycin with cross-reactivity of 37–100% and a 10–10,000 ng/mL dynamic range. Thus, multiple presentations of immunizing hapten help expand the repertoire of immune responses and opportunities for the selection of the required fine-specificity agent. View Full-Text
Keywords: hapten conjugate design; antibody repertoire; group recognition; ristomycin; teicoplanin; eremomycin; vancomycin hapten conjugate design; antibody repertoire; group recognition; ristomycin; teicoplanin; eremomycin; vancomycin
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Burkin, M.A.; Galvidis, I.A.; Eremin, S.A. Specific and Generic Immunorecognition of Glycopeptide Antibiotics Promoted by Unique and Multiple Orientations of Hapten. Biosensors 2019, 9, 52.

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