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Biosensors 2018, 8(4), 128; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios8040128

Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing Assay Quantitatively Enhances Acid-Fast Bacilli Count in Paucibacillary Pulmonary Tuberculosis

1
Health Department, El Colegio de la Frontera Sur (ECOSUR), San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas 29290, Mexico
2
The Network GRAAL (Grups de Recerca d’America i Africa Llatines)-ECOSUR Node, San Cristobal de Las Casas, Chiapas 29290, Mexico
3
Global Alliance for Rapid Diagnostics. Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
4
Nano-Biosensors Laboratory, Department of Biosystems and Agricultural Engineering, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824, USA
5
Mycobacteriology Laboratory, TB Prevention and Control Program for the Highlands of Chiapas, Chiapas 29250, Mexico
6
State Public Health Laboratory for Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas 29040, Mexico
7
Communicable and Non-communicable Diseases Department, Ministry of Health of Chiapas, Tuxtla Gutierrez, Chiapas 29010, Mexico
8
Biostatistics and Epidemiology Unit, Autonomous University of Barcelona, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain
9
Faculty of Medical Sciences, and Health and Life, International University of Ecuador, Quito 170113, Ecuador
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 October 2018 / Revised: 5 December 2018 / Accepted: 9 December 2018 / Published: 12 December 2018
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Abstract

A new method using a magnetic nanoparticle-based colorimetric biosensing assay (NCBA) was compared with sputum smear microscopy (SSM) for the detection of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in sputum samples. Studies were made to compare the NCBA against SSM using sputum samples collected from PTB patients prior to receiving treatment. Experiments were also conducted to determine the appropriate concentration of glycan-functionalized magnetic nanoparticles (GMNP) used in the NCBA and to evaluate the optimal digestion/decontamination solution to increase the extraction, concentration and detection of acid-fast bacilli (AFB). The optimized NCBA consisted of a 1:1 mixture of 0.4% NaOH and 4% N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NALC) to homogenize the sputum sample. Additionally, 10 mg/mL of GMNP was added to isolate and concentrate the AFB. All TB positive sputum samples were identified with an increased AFB count of 47% compared to SSM, demonstrating GMNP’s ability to extract and concentrate AFB. Results showed that NCBA increased AFB count compared to SSM, improving the grade from “1+” (in SSM) to “2+”. Extending the finding to paucibacillary cases, there is the likelihood of a “scant” grade to become “1+”. The assay uses a simple magnet and only costs $0.10/test. NCBA has great potential application in TB control programs. View Full-Text
Keywords: Mycobacterium tuberculosis; increased sensitivity; sputum smear microscopy; TB detection; nanotechnology; infectious disease Mycobacterium tuberculosis; increased sensitivity; sputum smear microscopy; TB detection; nanotechnology; infectious disease
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Gordillo-Marroquín, C.; Gómez-Velasco, A.; Sánchez-Pérez, H.J.; Pryg, K.; Shinners, J.; Murray, N.; Muñoz-Jiménez, S.G.; Bencomo-Alerm, A.; Gómez-Bustamante, A.; Jonapá-Gómez, L.; Enríquez-Ríos, N.; Martín, M.; Romero-Sandoval, N.; Alocilja, E.C. Magnetic Nanoparticle-Based Biosensing Assay Quantitatively Enhances Acid-Fast Bacilli Count in Paucibacillary Pulmonary Tuberculosis. Biosensors 2018, 8, 128.

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