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Review

Biosensors for Detecting Lymphocytes and Immunoglobulins

1
Institute of Clinical Physiology, National Council of Research, Via Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa, Italy
2
Department of Chemistry and Industrial Chemistry, University of Pisa, Via Moruzzi 13, 56124 Pisa, Italy
3
Institut des Sciences Analytiques, UMR 5280, Université Lyon 1, 5, rue de la Doua, 69100 Villeurbanne, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Biosensors 2020, 10(11), 155; https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10110155
Received: 30 September 2020 / Revised: 23 October 2020 / Accepted: 26 October 2020 / Published: 27 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biosensors for Rapid Diagnostics)
Lymphocytes (B, T and natural killer cells) and immunoglobulins are essential for the adaptive immune response against external pathogens. Flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent (ELISA) kits are the gold standards to detect immunoglobulins, B cells and T cells, whereas the impedance measurement is the most used technique for natural killer cells. For point-of-care, fast and low-cost devices, biosensors could be suitable for the reliable, stable and reproducible detection of immunoglobulins and lymphocytes. In the literature, such biosensors are commonly fabricated using antibodies, aptamers, proteins and nanomaterials, whereas electrochemical, optical and piezoelectric techniques are used for detection. This review describes how these measurement techniques and transducers can be used to fabricate biosensors for detecting lymphocytes and the total content of immunoglobulins. The various methods and configurations are reported, along with the advantages and current limitations. View Full-Text
Keywords: lymphocytes; immunoglobulins; B cells; T cells; natural killer cells; biosensors; immunosensors; aptasensors lymphocytes; immunoglobulins; B cells; T cells; natural killer cells; biosensors; immunosensors; aptasensors
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MDPI and ACS Style

Salvo, P.; Vivaldi, F.M.; Bonini, A.; Biagini, D.; Bellagambi, F.G.; Miliani, F.M.; Di Francesco, F.; Lomonaco, T. Biosensors for Detecting Lymphocytes and Immunoglobulins. Biosensors 2020, 10, 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10110155

AMA Style

Salvo P, Vivaldi FM, Bonini A, Biagini D, Bellagambi FG, Miliani FM, Di Francesco F, Lomonaco T. Biosensors for Detecting Lymphocytes and Immunoglobulins. Biosensors. 2020; 10(11):155. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10110155

Chicago/Turabian Style

Salvo, Pietro, Federico M. Vivaldi, Andrea Bonini, Denise Biagini, Francesca G. Bellagambi, Filippo M. Miliani, Fabio Di Francesco, and Tommaso Lomonaco. 2020. "Biosensors for Detecting Lymphocytes and Immunoglobulins" Biosensors 10, no. 11: 155. https://doi.org/10.3390/bios10110155

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