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Open AccessArticle

In Vitro Analysis of the Effects of ITER-Like Tungsten Nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and Epigenotoxicity in BEAS-2B Cells

1
CNRS, IRD, IMBE, Avignon Université, Aix Marseille Université, 13005 Marseille, France
2
CNRS, IRD, INRA, Coll France, CEREGE, Aix Marseille Université, 13545 Aix-en-Provence, France
3
CNRS, LP3, Aix Marseille Université, 13005 Marseille, France
4
CEA, CNRS, BIAM, Aix Marseille Université, 13108 Saint Paul-Lez-Durance, France
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CEA, IRAMIS UMR NIMBE, Université Paris Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
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LSPM, Université Paris 13, UPR 3407 CNRS, 93430 Villetaneuse, France
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CEA, SCBM, Université Paris Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, France
8
INSERM, MMG, Aix Marseille Université, 13005 Marseille, France
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INFLPR, 409 Atomistilor Street, Magurele, 77125 Bucharest, Romania
10
CEA, IRFM, 13108 Saint Paul lez Durance, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(9), 1233; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9091233
Received: 26 July 2019 / Revised: 22 August 2019 / Accepted: 26 August 2019 / Published: 30 August 2019
Tungsten was chosen as a wall component to interact with the plasma generated by the International Thermonuclear Experimental fusion Reactor (ITER). Nevertheless, during plasma operation tritiated tungsten nanoparticles (W-NPs) will be formed and potentially released into the environment following a Loss-Of-Vacuum-Accident, causing occupational or accidental exposure. We therefore investigated, in the bronchial human-derived BEAS-2B cell line, the cytotoxic and epigenotoxic effects of two types of ITER-like W-NPs (plasma sputtering or laser ablation), in their pristine, hydrogenated, and tritiated forms. Long exposures (24 h) induced significant cytotoxicity, especially for the hydrogenated ones. Plasma W-NPs impaired cytostasis more severely than the laser ones and both types and forms of W-NPs induced significant micronuclei formation, as shown by cytokinesis-block micronucleus assay. Single DNA strand breaks, potentially triggered by oxidative stress, occurred upon exposure to W-NPs and independently of their form, as observed by alkaline comet assay. After 24 h it was shown that more than 50% of W was dissolved via oxidative dissolution. Overall, our results indicate that W-NPs can affect the in vitro viability of BEAS-2B cells and induce epigenotoxic alterations. We could not observe significant differences between plasma and laser W-NPs so their toxicity might not be triggered by the synthesis method. View Full-Text
Keywords: tungsten; nanoparticles; tritiated particles; in vitro testing; cytotoxicity; micronuclei formation; DNA damage; epigenetics; DNA methylation; BEAS-2B cells. tungsten; nanoparticles; tritiated particles; in vitro testing; cytotoxicity; micronuclei formation; DNA damage; epigenetics; DNA methylation; BEAS-2B cells.
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Uboldi, C.; Sanles Sobrido, M.; Bernard, E.; Tassistro, V.; Herlin-Boime, N.; Vrel, D.; Garcia-Argote, S.; Roche, S.; Magdinier, F.; Dinescu, G.; Malard, V.; Lebaron-Jacobs, L.; Rose, J.; Rousseau, B.; Delaporte, P.; Grisolia, C.; Orsière, T. In Vitro Analysis of the Effects of ITER-Like Tungsten Nanoparticles: Cytotoxicity and Epigenotoxicity in BEAS-2B Cells. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1233.

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