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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(4), 584;

Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide Mitigates Its In Vivo Genotoxicity Toward Xenopus laevis Tadpoles

EcoLab, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, Toulouse, France
Univ. Bordeaux, UMR EPOC CNRS 5805, Aquatic ecotoxicology team, 33120 Arcachon, France
CIRIMAT, Université de Toulouse, CNRS, INPT, UPS, UMR CNRS-UPS-INP N°5085, Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier, Bât. CIRIMAT, 118 route de Narbonne, 31062 Toulouse CEDEX 9, France
CNRS, Universite de Bordeaux, Observatoire Aquitain des Sciences de l'Univers, UMS 2567 POREA, Allee Geoffroy Saint Hilaire, F-33615 Pessac, France
Institut de Science des Matériaux de Mulhouse (IS2M), UMR 7360 CNRS - UHA, 15 rue Jean Starcky, BP 2488, 68057 Mulhouse CEDEX, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 5 March 2019 / Revised: 28 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 April 2019 / Published: 9 April 2019
PDF [1088 KB, uploaded 9 April 2019]


The worldwide increase of graphene family materials raises the question of the potential consequences resulting from their release in the environment and future consequences on ecosystem health, especially in the aquatic environment in which they are likely to accumulate. Thus, there is a need to evaluate the biological and ecological risk but also to find innovative solutions leading to the production of safer materials. This work focuses on the evaluation of functional group-safety relationships regarding to graphene oxide (GO) in vivo genotoxic potential toward X. laevis tadpoles. For this purpose, thermal treatments in H2 atmosphere were applied to produce reduced graphene oxide (rGOs) with different surface group compositions. Analysis performed indicated that GO induced disturbances in erythrocyte cell cycle leading to accumulation of cells in G0/G1 phase. Significant genotoxicity due to oxidative stress was observed in larvae exposed to low GO concentration (0.1 mg.L1). Reduction of GO at 200 °C and 1000 °C produced a material that was no longer genotoxic at low concentrations. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis indicated that epoxide groups may constitute a good candidate to explain the genotoxic potential of the most oxidized form of the material. Thermal reduction of GO may constitute an appropriate “safer-by-design” strategy for the development of a safer material for environment.
Keywords: graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; micronucleus; oxidative stress; safer-by-design graphene oxide; reduced graphene oxide; micronucleus; oxidative stress; safer-by-design
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Evariste, L.; Lagier, L.; Gonzalez, P.; Mottier, A.; Mouchet, F.; Cadarsi, S.; Lonchambon, P.; Daffe, G.; Chimowa, G.; Sarrieu, C.; Ompraret, E.; Galibert, A.-M.; Ghimbeu, C.M.; Pinelli, E.; Flahaut, E.; Gauthier, L. Thermal Reduction of Graphene Oxide Mitigates Its In Vivo Genotoxicity Toward Xenopus laevis Tadpoles. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 584.

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