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Nanomaterials 2019, 9(3), 380; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9030380

Sterilization Procedure for Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels Loaded with Silver Nanoparticles for Clinical Applications

1
Drug Delivery and Targeting Group, Molecular Biology and Biochemistry Research Centre for Nanomedicine (CIBBIM-Nanomedicine), Vall d’Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08035 Barcelona, Spain
2
Networking Research Centre for Bioengineering, Biomaterials and Nanomedicine (CIBER-BBN), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
3
i3S-Instituto de Investigação e Inovação em Saúde, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-180 Porto, Portugal
4
INEB-Instituto Nacional de Engenharia Biomédica, Universidade do Porto, Rua Alfredo Allen 208, 4200-180 Porto, Portugal
5
Antimicrobial Resistance Laboratory, Vall d’Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Department of Infectious Diseases, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
6
Spanish Network for Research in Infectious Diseases (REIPI RD16/0016/0003), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
7
Orthopedic Surgery Department, Hospital Universitari Vall d’Hebron, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08035 Barcelona, Spain
8
Musculoskeletal Tissue Engineering Group, Vall d’Hebron Research Institute (VHIR), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona (UAB), Passeig de la Vall d’Hebron 129-139, 08035 Barcelona, Spain
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Received: 2 February 2019 / Revised: 14 February 2019 / Accepted: 18 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
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Abstract

Hydrogels (HG) have recognized benefits as drug delivery platforms for biomedical applications. Their high sensitivity to sterilization processes is however one of the greatest challenges regarding their clinical translation. Concerning infection diseases, prevention of post-operatory related infections is crucial to ensure appropriate patient recovery and good clinical outcomes. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) have shown good antimicrobial properties but sustained release at the right place is required. Thus, we produced and characterized thermo-sensitive HG based on Pluronic® F127 loaded with AgNPs (HG-AgNPs) and their integrity and functionality after sterilization by dry-heat and autoclave methods were carefully assessed. The quality attributes of HG-AgNPs were seriously affected by dry-heat methods but not by autoclaving methods, which allowed to ensure the required sterility. Also, direct sterilization of the final HG-AgNPs product proved more effective than of the raw material, allowing simpler production procedures in non-sterile conditions. The mechanical properties were assessed in post mortem rat models and the HG-AgNPs were tested for its antimicrobial properties in vitro using extremely drug-resistant (XDR) clinical strains. The produced HG-AgNPs prove to be versatile, easy produced and cost-effective products, with activity against XDR strains and an adequate gelation time and spreadability features and optimal for in situ biomedical applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: hydrogels; poloxamer; silver nanoparticles; sterilization; anti-bacterial agents; XDR strains; post-operative infections; chirurgic applications hydrogels; poloxamer; silver nanoparticles; sterilization; anti-bacterial agents; XDR strains; post-operative infections; chirurgic applications
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Rafael, D.; Andrade, F.; Martinez-Trucharte, F.; Basas, J.; Seras-Franzoso, J.; Palau, M.; Gomis, X.; Pérez-Burgos, M.; Blanco, A.; López-Fernández, A.; Vélez, R.; Abasolo, I.; Aguirre, M.; Gavaldà, J.; Schwartz, S., Jr. Sterilization Procedure for Temperature-Sensitive Hydrogels Loaded with Silver Nanoparticles for Clinical Applications. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 380.

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