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Bacterial Cellulose: Production, Modification and Perspectives in Biomedical Applications
Open AccessArticle

Bacterial Nanocellulose and Its Surface Modification by Glycidyl Methacrylate and Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate. Incorporation of Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin

1
Department of Chemistry, Materials and Chemical Engineering “Giulio Natta”, Politecnico di Milano, via Mancinelli 7, 20131 Milano, Italy
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Department of Biotechnology and Life Sciences, Università degli Studi dell’Insubria, via J.H. Dunant 3, 21100 Varese, Italy
3
Istituto Scientifico di Chimica e Biochimica”Giuliana Ronzoni”, via Giuseppe Colombo 81, 20133 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(12), 1668; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9121668
Received: 23 October 2019 / Revised: 23 October 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 22 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocelluloses: Synthesis, Modification and Applications)
Among nanocelluloses, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) has proven to be a promising candidate in a range of biomedical applications, from topical wound dressings to tissue-engineering scaffolds. Chemical modifications and incorporation of bioactive molecules have been obtained, further increasing the potential of BNC. This study describes the incorporation of vancomycin and ciprofloxacin in BNC and in modified BNC to afford bioactive BNCs suitable for topical wound dressings and tissue-engineering scaffolds. BNC was modified by grafting glycidylmethacrylate (GMA) and further cross-linking with ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) with the formation of stable C–C bonds though a radical Fenton-type process that involves generation of cellulose carbon centred radicals scavenged by methacrylate structures. The average molar substitution degree MS (MS = methacrylate residue per glucose unit, measured by Fourier transform infrared (FT–IR) analysis) can be modulated in a large range from 0.1 up to 3. BNC-GMA, BNC-EGDMA and BNC-GMA-EGDMA maintain the hydrogel status until MS reaches the value of 1. The mechanical stress resistance increase of BNC-GMA and BNC-GMA-EGDMA of MS around 0.8 with respect to BNC suggests that they can be preferred to BNC for tissue-engineering scaffolds in cases where the resistance plays a crucial role. BNC, BNC-GMA, BNC-EGDMA and BNC-GMA-EGDMA were loaded with vancomycin (VC) and ciprofloxacin (CP) and submitted to release experiments. BNC-GMA-EGDMA of high substitution degree (0.7–1) hold up to 50 percentage of the loaded vancomycin and ciprofloxacin amount, suggesting that they can be further investigated for long-term antimicrobial activity. Furthermore, they were not colonized by Staphylococcus aureus (S.A.) and Klebsiella pneumonia (K.P.). Grafting and cross-linking BNC modification emerges from our results as a good choice to improve the BNC potential in biomedical applications like topical wound dressings and tissue-engineering scaffolds.
Keywords: bacterial nanocellulose; methacrylate; Fenton reagent; cross-linking; vancomycin; ciprofloxacin; bioactive bacterial nanocellulose bacterial nanocellulose; methacrylate; Fenton reagent; cross-linking; vancomycin; ciprofloxacin; bioactive bacterial nanocellulose
MDPI and ACS Style

Vismara, E.; Bernardi, A.; Bongio, C.; Farè, S.; Pappalardo, S.; Serafini, A.; Pollegioni, L.; Rosini, E.; Torri, G. Bacterial Nanocellulose and Its Surface Modification by Glycidyl Methacrylate and Ethylene Glycol Dimethacrylate. Incorporation of Vancomycin and Ciprofloxacin. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1668.

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