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Open AccessReview

Bacterial Cellulose: Production, Modification and Perspectives in Biomedical Applications

by 1,2,* and 3,4
1
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Institute of Engineering Materials and Design, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
2
Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Institute of Automation, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
3
Faculty of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, Department of Biology, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
4
Faculty of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, University of Maribor, 2000 Maribor, Slovenia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(10), 1352; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101352
Received: 26 August 2019 / Revised: 8 September 2019 / Accepted: 16 September 2019 / Published: 20 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nanocelluloses: Synthesis, Modification and Applications)
Bacterial cellulose (BC) is ultrafine, nanofibrillar material with an exclusive combination of properties such as high crystallinity (84%–89%) and polymerization degree, high surface area (high aspect ratio of fibers with diameter 20–100 nm), high flexibility and tensile strength (Young modulus of 15–18 GPa), high water-holding capacity (over 100 times of its own weight), etc. Due to high purity, i.e., absence of lignin and hemicellulose, BC is considered as a non-cytotoxic, non-genotoxic and highly biocompatible material, attracting interest in diverse areas with hallmarks in medicine. The presented review summarizes the microbial aspects of BC production (bacterial strains, carbon sources and media) and versatile in situ and ex situ methods applied in BC modification, especially towards bionic design for applications in regenerative medicine, from wound healing and artificial skin, blood vessels, coverings in nerve surgery, dura mater prosthesis, arterial stent coating, cartilage and bone repair implants, etc. The paper concludes with challenges and perspectives in light of further translation in highly valuable medical products. View Full-Text
Keywords: bacterial cellulose; carbon source; in situ modification; ex situ modification; biomedical applications bacterial cellulose; carbon source; in situ modification; ex situ modification; biomedical applications
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MDPI and ACS Style

Gorgieva, S.; Trček, J. Bacterial Cellulose: Production, Modification and Perspectives in Biomedical Applications. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1352. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101352

AMA Style

Gorgieva S, Trček J. Bacterial Cellulose: Production, Modification and Perspectives in Biomedical Applications. Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(10):1352. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101352

Chicago/Turabian Style

Gorgieva, Selestina; Trček, Janja. 2019. "Bacterial Cellulose: Production, Modification and Perspectives in Biomedical Applications" Nanomaterials 9, no. 10: 1352. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9101352

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