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Open AccessArticle

Effects of Embedded Helium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Erbium Films

by Wenbo Fu 1,†, Huahai Shen 1,*,†, Liqun Shi 2, Xiaosong Zhou 1 and Xinggui Long 1,*
1
Institute of Nuclear Physics and Chemistry, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621900, China
2
Applied Ion Beam Physics Laboratory, Institute of Modern Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433, China
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2019, 9(11), 1564; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano9111564
Received: 13 October 2019 / Revised: 29 October 2019 / Accepted: 30 October 2019 / Published: 4 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nanocomposite Thin Films and 2D Materials)
A series of helium (He) charged nanograin-sized erbium (Er) films were deposited by direct current (DC)-magnetron sputtering with different He/Ar mixture gases. The microstructure and mechanical properties of He-charged Er films were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and nanoindentation. The helium concentrations in Er films, determined by elastic recoil detection analysis (ERDA), ranged from 0 to 49.6%, with the increase in He:Ar flow ratio up to 18:1. The XRD results show that the grain sizes of Er films decreased with and increase in He content. The embedded He atoms induced the formation of spherical nanometer He bubbles, and the diameter of the He bubbles increased with the He content. The hardness and Young’s modulus increased and decreased with the decreasing grain sizes of polycrystalline Er–He films. The mechanisms of mechanical properties with respect to the grain size and He content were discussed based on the Hall–Petch formula and composite spheres model. View Full-Text
Keywords: helium bubbles; sputtering; erbium film; mechanical properties; TEM helium bubbles; sputtering; erbium film; mechanical properties; TEM
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MDPI and ACS Style

Fu, W.; Shen, H.; Shi, L.; Zhou, X.; Long, X. Effects of Embedded Helium on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Erbium Films. Nanomaterials 2019, 9, 1564.

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