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Nanomaterials 2018, 8(9), 731; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano8090731

Deep Airway Inflammation and Respiratory Disorders in Nanocomposite Workers

1
Department of Occupational Medicine, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague Na Bojišti 1, 128 00 Prague 2, Czech Republic
2
Institute of Chemical Process Fundamentals of the CAS, Rozvojova 1/135, 165 02 Prague, Czech Republic
3
Institute of Biophysics and Informatics, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, Salmovska 1, 120 00 Prague, Czech Republic
4
Faculty of Physical Education and Sport, First Faculty of Medicine, Charles University in Prague and General University Hospital in Prague, José Marího 31, 162 52 Prague, Czech Republic
5
Biocev, 1st Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Prumyslova 595, 252 50 Vestec, Czech Republic
6
Department of Machining and Assembly, Department of Engineering Technology, Department of Material Science, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technical University in Liberec, 461 17 Liberec, Czech Republic
7
UMass, Lowell, Department of Biomedical and Nutritional Sciences, Zuckerberg College of Health Sciences, Lowell, MA 01854, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 September 2018 / Revised: 12 September 2018 / Accepted: 13 September 2018 / Published: 16 September 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Toxicity and Ecotoxicity of Nanomaterials)
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Abstract

Thousands of researchers and workers worldwide are employed in nanocomposites manufacturing, yet little is known about their respiratory health. Aerosol exposures were characterized using real time and integrated instruments. Aerosol mass concentration ranged from 0.120 mg/m3 to 1.840 mg/m3 during nanocomposite machining processes; median particle number concentration ranged from 4.8 × 104 to 5.4 × 105 particles/cm3. The proportion of nanoparticles varied by process from 40 to 95%. Twenty employees, working in nanocomposite materials research were examined pre-shift and post-shift using spirometry and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in parallel with 21 controls. Pro-inflammatory leukotrienes (LT) type B4, C4, D4, and E4; tumor necrosis factor (TNF); interleukins; and anti-inflammatory lipoxins (LXA4 and LXB4) were analyzed in their exhaled breath condensate (EBC). Chronic bronchitis was present in 20% of researchers, but not in controls. A significant decrease in forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) was found in researchers post-shift (p ˂ 0.05). Post-shift EBC samples were higher for TNF (p ˂ 0.001), LTB4 (p ˂ 0.001), and LTE4 (p ˂ 0.01) compared with controls. Nanocomposites production was associated with LTB4 (p ˂ 0.001), LTE4 (p ˂ 0.05), and TNF (p ˂ 0.001), in addition to pre-shift LTD4 and LXB4 (both p ˂ 0.05). Spirometry documented minor, but significant, post-shift lung impairment. TNF and LTB4 were the most robust markers of biological effects. Proper ventilation and respiratory protection are required during nanocomposites processing. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; nanocomposites; exhaled breath condensate (EBC); inflammation; spirometry; FeNO nanoparticles; nanocomposites; exhaled breath condensate (EBC); inflammation; spirometry; FeNO
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Pelclova, D.; Zdimal, V.; Komarc, M.; Vlckova, S.; Fenclova, Z.; Ondracek, J.; Schwarz, J.; Kostejn, M.; Kacer, P.; Dvorackova, S.; Popov, A.; Klusackova, P.; Zakharov, S.; Bello, D. Deep Airway Inflammation and Respiratory Disorders in Nanocomposite Workers. Nanomaterials 2018, 8, 731.

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