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Article

Detection and Characterization of TiO2 Nanomaterials in Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants of Chihuahua State, Mexico

1
European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P.220, CEDEX 09, 38043 Grenoble, France
2
Faculty of Agrotechnological Sciences, Autonomous University of Chihuahua, Campus 1, Pascual Orozco, Chihuahua 31350, Mexico
3
Department Agroenvironmental Research, Madrid’s Institute for Rural Research and Development, Agricultural and Food, Leganitos 47, 28013 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Biology, University of Ljubljana, Večna pot 111, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
5
Jozef Stefan Institute, Jamova 39, SI-1000 Ljubljana, Slovenia
6
EcamRicert Srl, European Centre for the Sustainable Impact of Nanotechnology, Corso Stati Uniti 4, 35127 Padua, Italy
7
Department of Environmental Sciences Informatics and Statistics, University Ca’ Foscari, Dorsoduro 2137, 30123 Venezia, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: George Z. Kyzas
Nanomaterials 2022, 12(5), 744; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050744
Received: 24 December 2021 / Revised: 9 February 2022 / Accepted: 17 February 2022 / Published: 23 February 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Ecotoxicity of Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles)
TiO2 nanoparticles (TiO2-NPs) have a wide range of industrial applications (paintings, sunscreens, food and cosmetics) and is one of the most intensively used nanomaterials worldwide. Leaching from commercial products TiO2-NPs are predicted to significantly accumulate in wastewater sludges, which are then often used as soil amendment. In this work, sludge samples from four wastewater treatment plants of the Chihuahua State in Mexico were obtained during spring and summer (2017). A comprehensive characterization study was performed by X-ray based (laboratory and synchrotron) techniques and electron microscopy. Ti was detected in all sludge samples (1810–2760 mg/kg) mainly as TiO2 particles ranging from 40 nm up to hundreds of nm. Micro-XANES data was analyzed by principal component analysis and linear combination fitting enabling the identification of three predominant Ti species: anatase, rutile and ilmenite. Micro-XANES from the smaller Ti particles was predominantly anatase (68% + 32% rutile), suggesting these TiO2-NPs originate from paintings and cosmetics. TEM imaging confirmed the presence of nanoscale Ti with smooth surface morphologies resembling engineered TiO2-NPs. The size and crystalline phase of TiO2-NPs in the sludge from this region suggest increased reactivity and potential toxicity to agro-systems. Further studies should be dedicated to evaluating this. View Full-Text
Keywords: nanoparticles; sewage sludge; X-ray microspectroscopy; synchrotron nanoparticles; sewage sludge; X-ray microspectroscopy; synchrotron
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MDPI and ACS Style

Reyes-Herrera, J.; Acosta-Slane, D.; Castillo-Michel, H.; Pradas del Real, A.E.; Vogel-Mikus, K.; Benetti, F.; Roman, M.; Villanova, J.; Valles-Aragón, M.C. Detection and Characterization of TiO2 Nanomaterials in Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Nanomaterials 2022, 12, 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050744

AMA Style

Reyes-Herrera J, Acosta-Slane D, Castillo-Michel H, Pradas del Real AE, Vogel-Mikus K, Benetti F, Roman M, Villanova J, Valles-Aragón MC. Detection and Characterization of TiO2 Nanomaterials in Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants of Chihuahua State, Mexico. Nanomaterials. 2022; 12(5):744. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050744

Chicago/Turabian Style

Reyes-Herrera, Juan, Damaris Acosta-Slane, Hiram Castillo-Michel, Ana E. Pradas del Real, Katarina Vogel-Mikus, Federico Benetti, Marco Roman, Julie Villanova, and M. Cecilia Valles-Aragón. 2022. "Detection and Characterization of TiO2 Nanomaterials in Sludge from Wastewater Treatment Plants of Chihuahua State, Mexico" Nanomaterials 12, no. 5: 744. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano12050744

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