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Article

Microdialysis on Ex Vivo Porcine Ear Skin Can Validly Study Dermal Penetration including the Fraction of Transfollicular Penetration—Demonstrated on Caffeine Nanocrystals

1
Center of Experimental and Applied Cutaneous Physiology, Department of Dermatology Venereology and Allergology, Freie Universität Berlin, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, and Berlin Institute of Health, Charité—Universitätsmedizin, 10117 Berlin, Germany
2
Merck KGaA, 64293 Darmstadt, Germany
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Department of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, Philipps-Universität, 35037 Marburg, Germany
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BASF SE, R&D Pharma Ingredients, 67063 Ludwigshafen, Germany
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Department II, Beuth University of Applied Sciences, 13353 Berlin, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Alicia Rodríguez-Gascón
Nanomaterials 2021, 11(9), 2387; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092387
Received: 2 August 2021 / Revised: 6 September 2021 / Accepted: 9 September 2021 / Published: 14 September 2021
(This article belongs to the Section Biology and Medicines)
Common ex vivo methods for penetration investigations often fail to monitor transfollicular penetration appropriately. In the present investigation, the validity of dermal microdialysis on the ex vivo porcine ear skin to investigate penetration kinetics, including transfollicular penetration, was studied. In setup A, a caffeine nanocrystal formulation was compared to a non-particular caffeine gel formulation. In setup B, two caffeine nanocrystal formulations of different sizes (200 nm, 700 nm) were compared to each other. Microdialysis samples were collected for 46 h. After sampling, the skin layers were separated, homogenized, and caffeine was quantified in all samples. In setup A the area under the curve (AUC) after crystal gel formulation application was 12 times higher than after non-particular formulation application. Setup B showed an increased AUC of 42% in the microdialysis data when the 700 nm caffeine crystals were applied compared to the 200 nm crystals. The microdialysis data was supported by the separation, homogenization and extraction data. Microdialysis performed on ex vivo porcine ear skin is a novel experimental setup. It is of high interest for further investigations since it is able to also capture the impact of follicular and transfollicular penetration kinetics as no other ex vivo setup can. View Full-Text
Keywords: transfollicular penetration; microdialysis; IVIVC; caffeine; drug delivery system; nanotechnology transfollicular penetration; microdialysis; IVIVC; caffeine; drug delivery system; nanotechnology
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MDPI and ACS Style

Klein, A.L.; Lubda, M.; Specht, D.; Pyo, S.-M.; Busch, L.; Lademann, J.; Meinke, M.C.; Beckers, I.; von Hagen, J.; Keck, C.M.; Patzelt, A. Microdialysis on Ex Vivo Porcine Ear Skin Can Validly Study Dermal Penetration including the Fraction of Transfollicular Penetration—Demonstrated on Caffeine Nanocrystals. Nanomaterials 2021, 11, 2387. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092387

AMA Style

Klein AL, Lubda M, Specht D, Pyo S-M, Busch L, Lademann J, Meinke MC, Beckers I, von Hagen J, Keck CM, Patzelt A. Microdialysis on Ex Vivo Porcine Ear Skin Can Validly Study Dermal Penetration including the Fraction of Transfollicular Penetration—Demonstrated on Caffeine Nanocrystals. Nanomaterials. 2021; 11(9):2387. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092387

Chicago/Turabian Style

Klein, Anna L., Markus Lubda, David Specht, Sung-Min Pyo, Loris Busch, Jürgen Lademann, Martina C. Meinke, Ingeborg Beckers, Jörg von Hagen, Cornelia M. Keck, and Alexa Patzelt. 2021. "Microdialysis on Ex Vivo Porcine Ear Skin Can Validly Study Dermal Penetration including the Fraction of Transfollicular Penetration—Demonstrated on Caffeine Nanocrystals" Nanomaterials 11, no. 9: 2387. https://doi.org/10.3390/nano11092387

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