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Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles for Therapeutic Applications in Bone Regeneration
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Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles-Based Systems for RNAi Delivery: Applications in Bone Tissue Regeneration

by Tanya J. Levingstone 1,2,3,4,†, Simona Herbaj 1,2,†, John Redmond 1,2, Helen O. McCarthy 5 and Nicholas J. Dunne 1,2,3,4,5,6,7,*
1
School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, 9 Dublin, Ireland
2
Centre for Medical Engineering Research, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Dublin City University, 9 Dublin, Ireland
3
Advanced Processing Technology Research Centre, Dublin City University, 9 Dublin, Ireland
4
Trinity Centre for Biomedical Engineering, Trinity Biomedical Sciences Institute, Trinity College Dublin, 2 Dublin, Ireland
5
School of Pharmacy, Queen’s University Belfast, Belfast BT9 7BL, UK
6
Department of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, School of Engineering, Trinity College Dublin, 2 Dublin, Ireland
7
Advanced Materials and Bioengineering Research Centre (AMBER), Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland and Trinity College Dublin, 2 Dublin, Ireland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Nanomaterials 2020, 10(1), 146; https://doi.org/10.3390/nano10010146
Received: 4 October 2019 / Revised: 16 December 2019 / Accepted: 21 December 2019 / Published: 14 January 2020
Bone-related injury and disease constitute a significant global burden both socially and economically. Current treatments have many limitations and thus the development of new approaches for bone-related conditions is imperative. Gene therapy is an emerging approach for effective bone repair and regeneration, with notable interest in the use of RNA interference (RNAi) systems to regulate gene expression in the bone microenvironment. Calcium phosphate nanoparticles represent promising materials for use as non-viral vectors for gene therapy in bone tissue engineering applications due to their many favorable properties, including biocompatibility, osteoinductivity, osteoconductivity, and strong affinity for binding to nucleic acids. However, low transfection rates present a significant barrier to their clinical use. This article reviews the benefits of calcium phosphate nanoparticles for RNAi delivery and highlights the role of surface functionalization in increasing calcium phosphate nanoparticles stability, improving cellular uptake and increasing transfection efficiency. Currently, the underlying mechanistic principles relating to these systems and their interplay during in vivo bone formation is not wholly understood. Furthermore, the optimal microRNA targets for particular bone tissue regeneration applications are still unclear. Therefore, further research is required in order to achieve the optimal calcium phosphate nanoparticles-based systems for RNAi delivery for bone tissue regeneration. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue engineering; calcium phosphates; gene therapy; nanoparticles; non-viral vectors; RNA interference; surface functionalization bone tissue engineering; calcium phosphates; gene therapy; nanoparticles; non-viral vectors; RNA interference; surface functionalization
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Levingstone, T.J.; Herbaj, S.; Redmond, J.; McCarthy, H.O.; Dunne, N.J. Calcium Phosphate Nanoparticles-Based Systems for RNAi Delivery: Applications in Bone Tissue Regeneration. Nanomaterials 2020, 10, 146.

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