Machine Learning (ML) techniques have been applied in the field of nanotoxicology with very encouraging results. Adverse effects of nanoforms are affected by multiple features described by theoretical descriptors, nano-specific measured properties, and experimental conditions. ML has been proven very helpful in this field in order to gain an insight into features effecting toxicity, predicting possible adverse effects as part of proactive risk analysis, and informing safe design. At this juncture, it is important to document and categorize the work that has been carried out. This study investigates and bookmarks ML methodologies used to predict nano (eco)-toxicological outcomes in nanotoxicology during the last decade. It provides a review of the sequenced steps involved in implementing an ML model, from data pre-processing, to model implementation, model validation, and applicability domain. The review gathers and presents the step-wise information on techniques and procedures of existing models that can be used readily to assemble new nanotoxicological in silico studies and accelerates the regulation of in silico tools in nanotoxicology. ML applications in nanotoxicology comprise an active and diverse collection of ongoing efforts, although it is still in their early steps toward a scientific accord, subsequent guidelines, and regulation adoption. This study is an important bookend to a decade of ML applications to nanotoxicology and serves as a useful guide to further in silico applications.
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