Next Article in Journal
Design of Silk-Elastin-Like Protein Nanoparticle Systems with Mucoadhesive Properties
Next Article in Special Issue
Phosphoserine Functionalized Cements Preserve Metastable Phases, and Reprecipitate Octacalcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Dicalcium Phosphate, and Amorphous Calcium Phosphate, during Degradation, In Vitro
Previous Article in Journal
Biomechanical Effects of a New Macrogeometry Design of Dental Implants: An In Vitro Experimental Analysis
Previous Article in Special Issue
Critical Defect Healing Assessment in Rat Calvaria Filled with Injectable Calcium Phosphate Cement
Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Regulation of Osteogenic Markers at Late Stage of Osteoblast Differentiation in Silicon and Zinc Doped Porous TCP

W. M. Keck Biomedical Materials Research Laboratory, School of Mechanical and Materials Engineering, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2920, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(4), 48;
Received: 2 August 2019 / Revised: 24 September 2019 / Accepted: 22 October 2019 / Published: 5 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates)
Calcium phosphates (CaPs) are one of the most widely used synthetic materials for bone grafting applications in the orthopedic industry. Recent trends in synthetic bone graft applications have shifted towards the incorporation of metal trace elements that extend the performance of CaPs to have osteoinductive properties. The objective of this study is to investigate the effects of silicon (Si) and zinc (Zn) dopants in highly porous tricalcium phosphate (TCP) scaffolds on late-stage osteoblast cell differentiation markers. In this study, an oil emulsion method is utilized to fabricate highly porous SiO2 doped β-TCP (Si-TCP) and ZnO doped β-TCP (Zn-TCP) scaffolds through the incorporation of 0.5 wt.% SiO2 and 0.25 wt.% ZnO, respectively, to the β-TCP scaffold. Reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) is utilized to analyze the mRNA expression of osteoprotegerin (OPG), receptor activator of nuclear kappa beta ligand (RANKL), bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), and runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2) at the later stage of osteoblast differentiation, day 21 and day 28. Results show that the addition of Si and Zn to the β-TCP structure inhibited the β to α-TCP phase transformation and enhance the density without affecting the dissolution properties. Normal BMP-2 and Runx2 transcriptions are observed in both Si-TCP and Zn-TCP scaffolds at the initial time point, as demonstrated by RT-qPCR. Moreover, the addition of both Si and Zn positively regulate the osteoprotegerin: receptor activator of nuclear factor k-β ligand (OPG:RANKL) ratio at 21-days for Si-TCP and Zn-TCP scaffolds. These results demonstrate the effects of Si and Zn doped porous β-TCP scaffolds on the upregulation of osteoblast marker gene expression including OPG, RANKL, BMP-2, and Runx2, indicating the role of trace elements on the effective regulation of late-stage osteoblast cell differentiation markers. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone remodeling; calcium phosphate; osteoblast; silicon; zinc; differentiation markers bone remodeling; calcium phosphate; osteoblast; silicon; zinc; differentiation markers
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Fielding, G.A.; Sarkar, N.; Vahabzadeh, S.; Bose, S. Regulation of Osteogenic Markers at Late Stage of Osteoblast Differentiation in Silicon and Zinc Doped Porous TCP. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 48.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop