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Open AccessArticle

Phosphoserine Functionalized Cements Preserve Metastable Phases, and Reprecipitate Octacalcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Dicalcium Phosphate, and Amorphous Calcium Phosphate, during Degradation, In Vitro

Applied Material Science, Department of Engineering, Uppsala University, 75121 Uppsala, Sweden
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J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10(4), 54; https://doi.org/10.3390/jfb10040054
Received: 1 October 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 27 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Functionalized Biomimetic Calcium Phosphates)
Phosphoserine modified cements (PMC) exhibit unique properties, including strong adhesion to tissues and biomaterials. While TTCP-PMCs remodel into bone in vivo, little is known regarding the bioactivity and physiochemical changes that occur during resorption. In the present study, changes in the mechanical strength and composition were evaluated for 28 days, for three formulations of αTCP based PMCs. PMCs were significantly stronger than unmodified cement (38–49 MPa vs. 10 MPa). Inclusion of wollastonite in PMCs appeared to accelerate the conversion to hydroxyapatite, coincident with slight decrease in strength. In non-wollastonite PMCs the initial compressive strength did not change after 28 days in PBS (p > 0.99). Dissolution/degradation of PMC was evaluated in acidic (pH 2.7, pH 4.0), and supersaturated fluids (simulated body fluid (SBF)). PMCs exhibited comparable mass loss (<15%) after 14 days, regardless of pH and ionic concentration. Electron microscopy, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray analysis revealed that significant amounts of brushite, octacalcium phosphate, and hydroxyapatite reprecipitated, following dissolution in acidic conditions (pH 2.7), while amorphous calcium phosphate formed in SBF. In conclusion, PMC surfaces remodel into metastable precursors to hydroxyapatite, in both acidic and neutral environments. By tuning the composition of PMCs, durable strength in fluids, and rapid transformation can be obtained. View Full-Text
Keywords: phosphoserine; phosphoserine modified cement; calcium phosphate; degradation; compressive strength; tissue adhesive; tissue engineering; scaffold; biomaterial; mineralization phosphoserine; phosphoserine modified cement; calcium phosphate; degradation; compressive strength; tissue adhesive; tissue engineering; scaffold; biomaterial; mineralization
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MDPI and ACS Style

Bystrom, J.L.; Pujari-Palmer, M. Phosphoserine Functionalized Cements Preserve Metastable Phases, and Reprecipitate Octacalcium Phosphate, Hydroxyapatite, Dicalcium Phosphate, and Amorphous Calcium Phosphate, during Degradation, In Vitro. J. Funct. Biomater. 2019, 10, 54.

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