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Challenges 2018, 9(2), 26; https://doi.org/10.3390/challe9020026

Industrial Developmental Toxicants and Congenital Heart Disease in Urban and Rural Alberta, Canada

1
Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Fetal and Neonatal Cardiology Program, Department of Pediatrics, Stollery Children’s Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
2
Women and Children’s Health Research Institute, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
3
Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R7, Canada
4
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2E3, Canada
5
Division of Immunology, Hematology, Oncology, Palliative Care and Environmental Health, Department of Pediatrics, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
6
inVIVO Planetary Health of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), West New York, NJ 07093, USA
7
Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children’s Hospital, University of Calgary, AB T3B 6A8, Canada
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 17 May 2018 / Revised: 28 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 1 July 2018
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Abstract

The etiology of congenital heart defects (CHD) is not known for many affected patients. In the present study, we examined the association between industrial emissions and CHD in urban and rural Alberta. We acquired the emissions data reported in the Canadian National Pollutant Release Inventory (n = 18) and identified CHD patients born in Alberta from 2003–2010 (n = 2413). We identified three groups of emissions after principal component analysis: Groups 1, 2, and 3. The distribution of exposure to the postal codes with births was determined using an inverse distance weighted approach. Poisson or negative binomial regression models helped estimate associations (relative risk (RR), 95% Confidence Intervals (CI)) adjusted for socioeconomic status and two criteria pollutants: nitrogen dioxide and particulate matter with a mean aerodynamic diameter of ≤2.5 micrometers. The adjusted RR in urban settings was 1.8 (95% CI: 1.5, 2.3) for Group 1 and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3, 1.6) for both Groups 2 and 3. In rural postal codes, Groups 1 and 3 emissions had a RR of 2.6 (95% CI: 1.03, 7). Associations were only observed in postal codes with the highest levels of emissions and maps demonstrated that regions with very high exposures were sparse. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital heart disease; developmental toxicants; air pollution; industrial emissions; planetary health; National Pollutant Release Inventory congenital heart disease; developmental toxicants; air pollution; industrial emissions; planetary health; National Pollutant Release Inventory
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Ngwezi, D.P.; Hornberger, L.K.; Serrano-Lomelin, J.; Nielsen, C.C.; Fruitman, D.; Osornio-Vargas, A. Industrial Developmental Toxicants and Congenital Heart Disease in Urban and Rural Alberta, Canada. Challenges 2018, 9, 26.

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