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Industrial Developmental Toxicants and Congenital Heart Disease in Urban and Rural Alberta, Canada
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Challenges 2018, 9(2), 28; https://doi.org/10.3390/challe9020028

Tracking Trends in Emissions of Developmental Toxicants and Potential Associations with Congenital Heart Disease in Alberta, Canada

1
Department of Pediatrics, Fetal and Neonatal Cardiology Program, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, Stollery Children’s Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2B7, Canada
2
Departments of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Royal Alexandra Hospital, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 2R7, Canada
3
Department of Pediatrics, Division of Immunology, Hematology, Oncology, Palliative Care and Environmental Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB T6G 1C9, Canada
4
Section of Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Alberta Children’s Hospital, University of Calgary, Calgary, AB T3B 6A8, Canada
5
inVIVO Planetary Health of the Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), West New York, NJ 07093, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 28 May 2018 / Revised: 8 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract

Congenital heart disease (CHD) is a serious anomaly for which the etiology remains elusive. We explored temporal trend associations between industrial developmental toxicant (DT) air emissions and CHD in Alberta. Patients born between 2004–2011 with a diagnosis of CHD and 18 DTs from the National Pollutant Release Inventory (2003–2010) were identified. We applied principal component analysis (PCA) to DT amounts and toxicity risk scores (RS) and defined yearly crude CHD and septal defects rates for urban and rural regions. Correlations between DT groups and CHD rates were examined with Spearman test and Bonferroni correction was conducted for multiple comparisons. PCA identified three DT groups: Group 1 (volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and other gases,) Group 2 (other VOCs), and Group 3 (mainly heavy metals). Province-wide, we found associations between Group 1 DTs and CHD and septal defect rates, when using amounts (r = 0.86, CI 0.39, 0.97 and r = 0.89, CI 0.48, 0.98, respectively) and RS (r = 0.88, CI 0.47, 0.98 and r = 0.85, CI 0.36, 0.97, respectively). Rural Group 2 DTs were positively associated with septal defect rates in both amounts released and RS (r = 0.91, CI 0.55, 0.98 and r = 0.91, CI 0.55, 0.98, respectively). In this exploratory study, we found a temporal decrease in emissions and CHD rates in rural regions and a potential positive association between CHD and septal defect rates and mixtures of organic compounds with or without gases. View Full-Text
Keywords: congenital heart disease; planetary health; industrial emissions; air pollution; developmental toxicants congenital heart disease; planetary health; industrial emissions; air pollution; developmental toxicants
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Ngwezi, D.P.; Hornberger, L.K.; Cabeza-Gonzalez, J.L.; Chandra, S.; Fruitman, D.; Osornio-Vargas, A. Tracking Trends in Emissions of Developmental Toxicants and Potential Associations with Congenital Heart Disease in Alberta, Canada. Challenges 2018, 9, 28.

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