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Agriculture, Volume 9, Issue 11 (November 2019)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) The sustainability of any manufacturing process encompasses three main aspects: product quality, [...] Read more.
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Open AccessArticle
Inherent Reflectance Variability of Vegetation
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 246; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110246 - 16 Nov 2019
Abstract
With the inception of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), remotely sensed images have been captured much closer to the ground, which has meant better resolution and smaller ground sample distances (GSDs). This has provided the precision agriculture community with the ability to analyze [...] Read more.
With the inception of small unmanned aircraft systems (sUAS), remotely sensed images have been captured much closer to the ground, which has meant better resolution and smaller ground sample distances (GSDs). This has provided the precision agriculture community with the ability to analyze individual plants, and in certain cases, individual leaves on those plants. This has also allowed for a dramatic increase in data acquisition for agricultural analysis. Because satellite and manned aircraft remote sensing data collections had larger GSDs, self-shadowing was not seen as an issue for agricultural remote sensing. However, sUAS are able to image these shadows which can cause issues in data analysis. This paper investigates the inherent reflectance variability of vegetation by analyzing six Coneflower plants, as a surrogate for other cash crops, across different variables. These plants were measured under different forecasts (cloudy and sunny), at different times (08:00 a.m., 09:00 a.m., 10:00 a.m., 11:00 a.m. and 12:00 p.m.), and at different GSDs (2, 4 and 8 cm) using a field portable spectroradiometer (ASD Field Spec). In addition, a leafclip spectrometer was utilized to measure individual leaves on each plant in a controlled lab environment. These spectra were analyzed to determine if there was any significant difference in the health of the various plants measured. Finally, a MicaSense RedEdge-3 multispectral camera was utilized to capture images of the plants every hour to analyze the variability produced by a sensor designed for agricultural remote sensing. The RedEdge-3 was held stationary at 1.5 m above the plants while collecting all images, which produced a GSD of 0.1 cm/pixel. To produce 2, 4, and 8 cm GSD, the MicaSense RedEdge-3 would need to be at an altitude of 30.5 m, 61 m and 122 m respectively. This study did not take background effects into consideration for either the ASD or MicaSense. Results showed that GSD produced a statistically significant difference (p < 0.001) in Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI, a commonly used metric to determine vegetation health), R 2 values demonstrated a low correlation between time of day and NDVI, and a one-way ANOVA test showed no statistically significant difference in the NDVI computed from the leafclip probe (p-value of 0.018). Ultimately, it was determined that the best condition for measuring vegetation reflectance was on cloudy days near noon. Sunny days produced self-shadowing on the plants which increased the variability of the measured reflectance values (higher standard deviations in all five RedEdge-3 channels), and the shadowing of the plants decreased as time approached noon. This high reflectance variability in the coneflower plants made it difficult to accurately measure the NDVI. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Efficiency in the Rice Farming: Evidence from Northwest Bangladesh
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110245 - 15 Nov 2019
Abstract
Rice production takes a leading role in the agricultural sector of Bangladesh contributing to 35% of the gross value added of total agricultural production (December 2011), employing 48% of the rural workforce. While the country achieved self-sufficiency in rice, continuous population growth requires [...] Read more.
Rice production takes a leading role in the agricultural sector of Bangladesh contributing to 35% of the gross value added of total agricultural production (December 2011), employing 48% of the rural workforce. While the country achieved self-sufficiency in rice, continuous population growth requires Bangladesh to further increase the production of this staple cereal. However, considering the steady decline of the cropped area and available rural workforce, such increase could be reached by increasing the efficiency in rice production. This study aims to examine the resource use efficiency and its drivers in the performance of rice farms in the Northwest region of Bangladesh, which is considered as the food bowl of the country. The study applied a two-stage approach of Data Envelopment Analysis followed by Ordinary Least Squares to estimate the impact of contextual variables on rice production. The empirical research results show that 83% of rice farms among the sample of 184 farms are efficient being located on efficiency frontier, while the 2% farms are inefficient and could improve their efficiency. The remaining 15% of farms are at level that is close to the efficiency frontier. Such factors as the cost of irrigation, pest control, and crop harvesting and carrying are the main drivers of efficiency amongst the considered rice farms. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Perspectives on Perennial Grain Crop Production among Organic and Conventional Farmers in France and the United States
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110244 - 14 Nov 2019
Abstract
Perennial grain crops are currently being developed, yet little is known about farmer interest in these new crops. We conducted an online survey in France and the United States to evaluate interest in perennial grains. Results show that 57% of the farmers who [...] Read more.
Perennial grain crops are currently being developed, yet little is known about farmer interest in these new crops. We conducted an online survey in France and the United States to evaluate interest in perennial grains. Results show that 57% of the farmers who responded reported they were “interested” or “very interested” in growing perennial grains, whereas 41% reported they needed more information. Respondents consistently ranked “to increase or maintain farm profitability” and “to improve soil health” among the top reasons why they were interested in growing perennial grains. Reasons why farmers were interested, as well as their concerns about growing perennial grains, differed by country and farm type (i.e., conventional vs. organic). More farmers in France than in the United States ranked “to reduce labor requirements”, and more conventional farmers than organic farmers ranked “to reduce inputs” among their top reasons for their interest. Farmers were also asked about integration strategies and management. More farmers in the United States than in France and more conventional farmers than organic farmers reported that they were interested in dual-purpose perennial crops that can be harvested for both grain and forage. Results from this survey can guide future perennial grain research and development. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Factors Affecting Successful Agricultural Loan Applications: The Case of a South African Credit Provider
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 243; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110243 - 13 Nov 2019
Abstract
The purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of different factors used by a formal credit institution to evaluate loan applications in the agricultural sector. The research attempts to capture the actual factors considered by credit institutions rather than the traditional [...] Read more.
The purpose of the paper is to determine the influence of different factors used by a formal credit institution to evaluate loan applications in the agricultural sector. The research attempts to capture the actual factors considered by credit institutions rather than the traditional factors found in literature. Loan applications from 128 farmers, predominantly commercial farmers, were obtained from a credit institution with branches situated in various provinces of South Africa. Data consisted of loan application information which is broader than the financial information normally obtained in credit research, and the final decision of the credit provider. Principal component logistic regression was used to investigate the likeliness with which loan application variables influence the outcome of the loan application. Results indicate that loan applications that are more likely to be successful are older more experienced farmers, who can provide sufficient collateral, have more years of business with the credit provider, have an acceptable credit history, request smaller loan amounts, have lower interest expense ratio, higher production cost ratios, and have diversification strategies. This paper contributes to knowledge on information used by financial credit providers (institutions) in classifying agricultural loan applications as successful as guided by actual factors used in credit decision making by the credit provider. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Evaluation of Environmental Efficiency of Edible Canna Production in Vietnam
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 242; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110242 - 12 Nov 2019
Abstract
Increasing yield while minimizing environmental pollution in agricultural production is nowadays the primary concern in agriculture-based countries, including Vietnam. This study aims to assess the environmental efficiency and technical efficiency, as well as to determine the factors influencing efficiency of edible canna farms [...] Read more.
Increasing yield while minimizing environmental pollution in agricultural production is nowadays the primary concern in agriculture-based countries, including Vietnam. This study aims to assess the environmental efficiency and technical efficiency, as well as to determine the factors influencing efficiency of edible canna farms in Backan province, by using the stochastic frontier analysis and truncated regression, respectively. Data were collected from a face-to-face interview of 346 farmers in 2017/2018 production year. The findings revealed that the average environmental efficiency score was low, of 0.57 and 0.58 for Nari and Babe districts, respectively; while the technical efficiency was found to be higher than the environmental efficiency with 0.74 for Nari district and 0.72 for Babe district. In addition, the results of the inefficient effects and truncated regression model indicated that education, extension contact, and experience individually had a significant and positive effect on efficiency scores. Hence, the government should designate policies focused on the extension system to provide training and facilitate technology transfer for farmers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Effects of Treatment with Electrolyzed Oxidizing Water on Postharvest Diseases of Avocado
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 241; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110241 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
The present study comprised five trials to investigate the efficacy of postharvest treatment with electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on postharvest disease development in avocado. Mature (dry matter 24–34%), hard green fruit cv. Hass (four trials), and cv. Wurtz (one trial) from orchards receiving [...] Read more.
The present study comprised five trials to investigate the efficacy of postharvest treatment with electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on postharvest disease development in avocado. Mature (dry matter 24–34%), hard green fruit cv. Hass (four trials), and cv. Wurtz (one trial) from orchards receiving minimal fungicide sprays were sourced, and subsequently dipped for 30 s in treatment solutions. Fruit were ripened at 23 °C and 65% relative humidity to encourage postharvest disease development, and assessed when ripe for anthracnose and stem end rot (SER), arising from natural field infections and/or the size of lesions resulting from post-treatment inoculation with Colletotrichum siamense. In the case of natural infection, EO water treatment reduced severity of SER disease by 30–75% compared with water treated control fruit in all four trials where it was assessed. Reduction in severity of SER after Graduate A+ fungicide or hypochlorite (NaOCl) bleach treatment ranged from 60–88% or 25–50%, respectively, compared with water controls. Under extremely high anthracnose disease pressure, 20% v/v EO water, NaOCl, as well as Graduate A+ fungicide treatments were mostly ineffective. Treatments in the final trial were applied as overhead sprays in an experimental-scale packing line to simulate commercial conditions. This was the only trial where anthracnose (as well as SER) was significantly reduced in fruit by 20% v/v EO water (12–35%) and Graduate A+ (34%) compared with water control. In two trials with C. siamense-inoculated fruit, anthracnose lesion size was reduced by 68–85%, and 90–100% by 20% v/v EO water and Graduate A+, respectively, compared with water-treated fruit. Fruit firmness and the number of days to ripen were mostly not affected by the treatments. This study demonstrates the potential for electrolyzed oxidizing water to be incorporated into integrated management programs for postharvest diseases of avocado, and possibly other fresh produce. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Physiology and Technology of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Combination of Ascophyllum nodosum Extract and Humic Acid Improve Early Growth and Reduces Post-Harvest Loss of Lettuce and Spinach
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 240; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110240 - 11 Nov 2019
Abstract
Leafy vegetables like lettuce and spinach are prone to significant post-harvest losses during handling and storage. The pre-harvest treatment of crops with biostimulants offers a sustainable strategy for reducing post-harvest losses. Earlier studies focused on the effect of plant biostimulants applied individually. In [...] Read more.
Leafy vegetables like lettuce and spinach are prone to significant post-harvest losses during handling and storage. The pre-harvest treatment of crops with biostimulants offers a sustainable strategy for reducing post-harvest losses. Earlier studies focused on the effect of plant biostimulants applied individually. In this study, we studied the efficacy of a combined application of two commonly used plant biostimulants: Ascophyllum nodosum extract (ANE) and humic acid (HA). Interestingly, the combination of both biostimulants improved early growth of lettuce and spinach compared to ANE and HA alone. Among the combinations used in this study, 0.25% ANE + 0.2% HA produced significantly higher fresh and dry biomass in lettuce and spinach compared to the other treatments and the control. Pre-harvest treatment of combination of 0.25% ANE and 0.2% HA significantly reduced the loss of fresh biomass during post-harvest storage. The combination of 0.25% ANE and 0.2% HA reduced lipid peroxidation during storage with an increase in total ascorbate, phenolic, and antioxidant capacity of spinach and lettuce. These results suggest that a combination of ANE and HA reduces post-harvest losses of spinach and lettuce more effectively than when applied individually. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Postharvest Physiology and Technology of Fruits and Vegetables)
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Open AccessArticle
Greening Modern Rice Farming Using Vermicompost and Its Impact on Productivity and Efficiency: An Empirical Analysis from Bangladesh
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 239; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110239 - 10 Nov 2019
Abstract
Greening modern rice farming while improving productivity and reducing chemical use is a desirable goal for sustainable agriculture. This paper analyzes the impact of vermicomposting on productivity and efficiency of modern rice farming using a random sample of 340 farmers from the southwestern [...] Read more.
Greening modern rice farming while improving productivity and reducing chemical use is a desirable goal for sustainable agriculture. This paper analyzes the impact of vermicomposting on productivity and efficiency of modern rice farming using a random sample of 340 farmers from the southwestern region of Bangladesh by applying a stochastic production frontier approach. Results reveal that productivity is significantly higher and the use of chemicals is significantly lower for vermicompost users as expected. However, profitability gain is not significantly different mainly due to the high cost of vermicompost. Use of vermicompost significantly increases productivity along with other conventional inputs and its users are relatively more technically efficient. Policy implications include investments to raise farmers’ awareness of the benefits of vermicomposting and support entrepreneurs to expand commercial production of vermicompost, which will synergistically curb the use of chemicals in modern rice farming while improving productivity and efficiency. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Survival Analysis for the Adjustment Phase Following Investment in Swiss Dairy Sheds
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 238; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110238 - 08 Nov 2019
Abstract
We analysed the adjustment phase following a dairy shed investment. On the basis of farm observations from both the Swiss Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and a database of government-supported investments from 2003 through 2014, we focused on the imputed profit, the farm [...] Read more.
We analysed the adjustment phase following a dairy shed investment. On the basis of farm observations from both the Swiss Farm Accountancy Data Network (FADN) and a database of government-supported investments from 2003 through 2014, we focused on the imputed profit, the farm income minus opportunity costs for family labour and family capital. After investment, the analysed farms needed three years to return to the same profit level as that before the investment (median value). A Cox proportional-hazards model (survival analysis) showed that the probability of reattaining the imputed profit increased with equity capital. A reduction of the probability was related to a high imputed profit, a high off-farm income, high expenses for purchased animals and, in particular, a greater use of family labour before the investment. We conclude that the use of family labour after investment should be addressed more thoroughly during the planning process prior to an investment. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Integration of Precision Farming Data and Spatial Statistical Modelling to Interpret Field-Scale Maize Productivity
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110237 - 04 Nov 2019
Abstract
Spatial variability in soil, crop, and topographic features, combined with temporal variability between seasons can result in variable annual yield patterns within a paddock. The complexity of interactions between yield-limiting factors such as soil nutrients and soil water require specialist statistical processing to [...] Read more.
Spatial variability in soil, crop, and topographic features, combined with temporal variability between seasons can result in variable annual yield patterns within a paddock. The complexity of interactions between yield-limiting factors such as soil nutrients and soil water require specialist statistical processing to be able to quantify variability, and thus inform crop management practices. This study uses multiple linear regression models, Cubist regression and feed-forward neural networks to predict spatial maize-grain (Zea mays) yield at two sites in the Waikato Region, New Zealand. The variables considered were: crop reflectance data from satellite imagery, soil electrical conductivity, soil organic matter, elevation, rainfall, temperature, solar radiation, and seeding density. This exercise explores methods which may be useful in predicting yield from proximal and remote sensed data with higher resolution than traditional low spatial resolution point sampling using soil testing and yield response curves. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Repetitive Movements in Melon Cultivation Workers under Greenhouses
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 236; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110236 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders cause serious problems that affect workers in many sectors. The objective of this study is the ergonomic analysis of melon cultivation farmers in Almeria-type greenhouses. For this, the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) method has been applied after carrying out a [...] Read more.
Musculoskeletal disorders cause serious problems that affect workers in many sectors. The objective of this study is the ergonomic analysis of melon cultivation farmers in Almeria-type greenhouses. For this, the rapid upper limb assessment (RULA) method has been applied after carrying out a detailed process of observing the farmers’ tasks. The study shows that 65% of the postures have a very-high-risk level, 26% high, 9% average, and no posture is found with a low risk. They also show that in 69.57% of the postures, the upper limbs are less affected than the others such as the neck, trunk, and lower limbs. Measures are proposed to improve the working conditions for workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
An Analysis of Irrigation Organizations in Colombia through the Prism of Collective Action
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 235; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110235 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
The objective of this article is to deepen the knowledge of collective action in irrigation organizations in Colombia, by identifying the limitations of the members for their organizational work and the variables of context that determine collective behavior. Human and environmental factors have [...] Read more.
The objective of this article is to deepen the knowledge of collective action in irrigation organizations in Colombia, by identifying the limitations of the members for their organizational work and the variables of context that determine collective behavior. Human and environmental factors have not been sufficiently considered in public irrigation policies, since, in the case of Colombia, these have focused almost exclusively on the physical infrastructure. The methodology develops a qualitative approach based on an ethnographic and quantitative study of the socioeconomic characteristics of irrigation users. The results allow us to affirm that the collective awareness of water is a common good. The vision of the associates about the associative work, the conformation and structuring of the organizations, the nature of the established agreements, and the socio-economic, environmental, and political environment of the organizations studied, are determining factors of their collective action and, therefore, should be taken into account in public policies of associative irrigation. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Organic Management of ‘Maradol’ Papaya (Carica papaya L.) Crops: Effects on the Sensorial and Physicochemical Characteristics of Fruits
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110234 - 01 Nov 2019
Abstract
The Maradol Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy berry produced in the tropics; it is highly appreciated around the world for its high nutritional and medicinal value, as well as its attractive sensory properties. Evaluating the physiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics [...] Read more.
The Maradol Papaya (Carica papaya L.) is a fleshy berry produced in the tropics; it is highly appreciated around the world for its high nutritional and medicinal value, as well as its attractive sensory properties. Evaluating the physiological, chemical, and sensory characteristics of ‘Maradol’ papaya fruits from organically managed crops was the primary objective of this study. Four treatments (T1–T4) were evaluated, all of which were fertilized using the same organic management practices. In addition, plant extracts were applied regularly to T1–T3 as pest control, and single (T2) and double (T1) rows of trap plants (roselle) were used. T4 did not receive additional treatment. Fruits under conventional agriculture outside the experimental site were included for comparative purposes (controls). The organic management of the plants did not negatively influence the physiological traits of postharvest ripening. Among the organic treatments, T1 fruits had the highest total soluble solids, vitamin C, and reducing sugars, as well as the lowest weight loss, which significantly improved the quality of the fruit, compared to conventionally produced fruits. In addition, sensory evaluation performed by trained judges, revealed that fruits from the organically managed plots (T1–T4) were the softest and juiciest, and had a higher score in fruit and papaya aroma, in contrast to the conventionally produced fruits, which turned out to be sour, more astringent, and less soft and juicy. The results show that the exclusively organic management of ‘Maradol’ papaya crops improves several post-harvest traits of the fruits, compared to those that can be purchased commercially and are conventionally grown. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Comparison of UAV Photogrammetry and 3D Modeling Techniques with Other Currently Used Methods for Estimation of the Tree Row Volume of a Super-High-Density Olive Orchard
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 233; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110233 - 29 Oct 2019
Abstract
A comparison of three different methods to evaluate the tree row volume (TRV) of a super-high-density olive orchard is presented in this article. The purpose was to validate the suitability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and 3D modeling techniques with respect to [...] Read more.
A comparison of three different methods to evaluate the tree row volume (TRV) of a super-high-density olive orchard is presented in this article. The purpose was to validate the suitability of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) photogrammetry and 3D modeling techniques with respect to manual and traditional methods of TRV detection. The use of UAV photogrammetry can reduce the amount of estimated biomass and, therefore, reduce the volume of pesticides to be used in the field by means of more accurate prescription maps. The presented comparison of methodologies was performed on an adult super-high-density olive orchard, planted with a density of 1660 trees per hectare. The first method (TRV1) was based on close-range photogrammetry from UAVs, the second (TRV2) was based on manual in situ measurements, and the third (TRV3) was based on a formula from the literature. The comparisons of TRV2-TRV1 and TRV3-TRV1 showed an average value of the difference equal to +13% (max: +65%; min: −11%) and +24% (max: +58%; min: +5%), respectively. The results show that the TRV1 method has high accuracy in predicting TRV with minor working time expenditure, and the only limitation is that professionally skilled personnel is required. Full article
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Open AccessArticle
Adoption Determinants of Modern Rice Cultivars among Smallholders of Northern Iran
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 232; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110232 - 24 Oct 2019
Abstract
Several agronomic innovations and precision technologies have been developed and disseminated in rice cultivation, but adoption is often lagged, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this work was to collect information on the use of improved rice cultivars and factors affecting adoption [...] Read more.
Several agronomic innovations and precision technologies have been developed and disseminated in rice cultivation, but adoption is often lagged, particularly in developing countries. The objective of this work was to collect information on the use of improved rice cultivars and factors affecting adoption through a farmers’ survey in Guilan Province, northern Iran. About 4 out of 10 farmers (42.8%) used improved rice cultivars. Above half of the farmers (55.2%) recognized the high profitability of this technology and half (49.8%) realized that modern rice cultivars are of great importance. However, there were some farmers who perceived no profitability (14.8%) or no importance (12.5%) regarding this technology. Additionally, 9.8% were not aware of the profitability, and 16.2% were not aware of the importance of the technology. The majority of the farmers (60.5%) collaborated with fellow farmers about common production problems. Nevertheless, low cooperation with extension agents was noted for 58.5% of the farmers and low attendance of local agricultural offices activities was noted for 59.8% of the farmers. A logistic regression analysis showed that perceived profitability and perceived importance of modern varieties, background in rice farming, and size of livestock holdings were positively associated with the adoption of improved cultivars. It can be concluded that the low acceptance of modern rice cultivars in the study area is related to current farming socio-economic conditions. Dissemination of information on improved cultivars from experienced farmers to other farmers should be considered to promote adoption, along with financial incentives to low-income farmers. Full article
Open AccessArticle
Experimental Study to Support Local Sunflower Oil Chains: Production of Cold Pressed Oil in Central Italy
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110231 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated in the world for different purposes. In Italy, the production is mostly located in the central area, representing 70% of Italian production. The market demand for sunflower oil is higher than the national [...] Read more.
Sunflower is one of the most important oilseed crops cultivated in the world for different purposes. In Italy, the production is mostly located in the central area, representing 70% of Italian production. The market demand for sunflower oil is higher than the national production. There is an increasing request for cold pressed sunflower oil for food application. The success of this activity is linked to a correct setting up and management of the production and supply chain with a valorization of products and by-products. To this aim, information is needed, and this paper is focused on the cultivation of sunflower in central Italy using suitable hybrids, as well as on the study of the cold extraction performance of the sunflower seed produced and the quality of by-products and residues. Results indicate that, on average, a range of about 1.0–1.5 t ha−1 of cold pressed oil and different amounts of by-products can be obtained. According to a proposed scenario, 30 ha cultivated with sunflower are needed to create a complete supply chain within the farm, avoiding many additional passages and maintaining all the value for the farmer. It is important to use suitable hybrids for obtaining good yield, but also the cold extraction performances are important because they also affect the quality of by-products and residues that can be valorized themselves to improve sustainability. Full article
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Open AccessCommunication
Factors that Affect Nonmarket Fruit and Vegetable Receptions: Analyses of Two Cross-Sectional Surveys in Gunma, Japan
Agriculture 2019, 9(11), 230; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture9110230 - 23 Oct 2019
Abstract
In this study, we identified the factors that affect the frequency of receiving nonmarket fruit and vegetables (FV). For Survey 1, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire for men aged 50–74 living in city (A) in Gunma, Japan. Participants were [...] Read more.
In this study, we identified the factors that affect the frequency of receiving nonmarket fruit and vegetables (FV). For Survey 1, we conducted a cross-sectional survey using a self-administered questionnaire for men aged 50–74 living in city (A) in Gunma, Japan. Participants were asked questions on FV receiving frequency, FV gardening, social cohesion (4–20 points), and basic characteristics. For Survey 2, a similar survey was conducted for residents aged 20–74 in three areas in city (B) in Gunma, but we included more variables. Ordinal logistic regression models were used for the analysis. In Survey 1, the responses of 243 participants were analyzed. The results showed that the FV receiving frequency was positively associated with non-gardeners and social cohesion. In Survey 2, the responses of 791 participants were analyzed. Vegetable receiving frequency was positively associated with rural and suburban areas, family structure, employment status, and non-farmers. The relationship between receiving frequency and social cohesion was similar to that found in Survey 1. In conclusion, in areas with flourishing FV cultivation, it seems to be easy to obtain FV through the social networks of reception, even for individuals who are not cultivating FV themselves. Full article
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