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Agriculture 2018, 8(4), 61; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture8040061

Effect of Simulated Tillage in Combination with Post-Shattering Temperature Conditions on Senna obtusifolia and Xanthium strumarium Seed Survival, Seedling Emergence and Seedbank Potential

1
Delta Research and Extension Center, Mississippi State University, 82 Stoneville Rd., Stoneville, MS 38776, USA
2
Department of Crop, Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, 1366 W. Altheimer Dr., Fayetteville, AR 72704, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 24 March 2018 / Revised: 19 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 22 April 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Weed Management)
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Abstract

Two of the most troublesome weeds in soybean, cotton, and corn in cropping systems of mid-south United States (US) are Senna obtusifolia and Xanthium strumarium. Understanding their population dynamics, particularly weed seedling emergence patterns, is important for the timely implementation and the success of weed management strategies. Identifying the sources of variation of emergence patterns could greatly improve our ability to predict emergence timing. A three-years field study was conducted to determine the effect of environmental conditions on S. obtusifolia and X. strumarium seedling emergence and seedbank potential. The experiment was conducted with two seed sources; X. strumarium burs and S. obtusifolia seeds from a single maternal plant source, and X. strumarium burs and S. obtusifolia seeds from multiple maternal plant sources, both being exposed either to 5 cm burial depth (buried) or left on the soil surface (soil surface) in the fallow or planted in spring after their storage under chilled (chill) or room temperature (no chill) conditions. X. strumarium and S. obtusifolia seedling emergence was lower from burs and seeds that were planted in the soil in September as compared with the chill and/or no chill seeds/burs stored for six months. X. strumarium seedling emergence was reduced from 37 to 1% when burs were left on the soil surface when compared to buried burs. S. obtusifolia seedling emergence was reduced from 47 to 13% when seeds were left on the soil surface as compared to buried. At the end of the experimental period, the soil seedbank of X. strumarium had been significantly depleted, whereas the remaining seeds of S. obtusifolia were viable. View Full-Text
Keywords: seed scarification; population dynamics; no-tillage; seed burial; chill temperatures seed scarification; population dynamics; no-tillage; seed burial; chill temperatures
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Bararpour, T.; Korres, N.E. Effect of Simulated Tillage in Combination with Post-Shattering Temperature Conditions on Senna obtusifolia and Xanthium strumarium Seed Survival, Seedling Emergence and Seedbank Potential. Agriculture 2018, 8, 61.

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