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Article

Co-Inoculation of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus to Assess the Efficacy of Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains in Growth Inhibition and Aflatoxin B1 Reduction

1
Department of Food Science, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
2
Department of Food Service and Management, Faculty of Food Science and Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
3
Laboratory of Halal Science Research, Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
4
Laboratory of Food Safety and Food Integrity, Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang 43400, Selangor Darul Ehsan, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2021, 11(3), 198; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030198
Received: 20 October 2020 / Revised: 10 December 2020 / Accepted: 11 December 2020 / Published: 27 February 2021
The pre-harvest biocontrol approach currently used includes laboratory inoculations using non-aflatoxigenic strains of Aspergillus flavus. This strategy effectively suppresses the indigenous aflatoxigenic strains and reduces aflatoxin accumulation in sweetcorn. The current in vitro study’s main objective is to determine the diametric growth rates of both Aflatoxin (AF)+ and AF strains and improve the understanding of competitive relationships among these strains in sweetcorn (Zea mays). Sweetcorn kernels inoculated with AF+ strains only, AF strains only, and co-inoculated with AF+ + AF strains were investigated for aflatoxin concentrations. The diametric growth results revealed that growth rates of AF strains at 25 and 30 °C were much greater than AF+ strains, which was in line with previous studies. The in vitro findings showed that the AKR5 and AKL34 biocontrol strains effectively inhibited the colony propagation and subsequent AFB1 contamination (up to 79%) of AF+ strains. On the other hand, the AKR1 and AKL35 were least effective in reducing AFB1 contents only by 58% and 60%, respectively. There was a significant difference (p < 0.05) in the reduction of AFB1 contents achieved by AF strains of A. flavus. The findings of the present study indicated the reduction in AFB1 with population expressions of AF+ strains by the AF strains and supports the notion of competitive exclusion through vigorous development and propagation of the non-aflatoxigenic fungi. View Full-Text
Keywords: sweetcorn; Aspergillus flavus; biocontrol; fungal competition; AFB1 sweetcorn; Aspergillus flavus; biocontrol; fungal competition; AFB1
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MDPI and ACS Style

Khan, R.; Ghazali, F.M.; Mahyudin, N.A.; Samsudin, N.I.P. Co-Inoculation of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus to Assess the Efficacy of Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains in Growth Inhibition and Aflatoxin B1 Reduction. Agriculture 2021, 11, 198. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030198

AMA Style

Khan R, Ghazali FM, Mahyudin NA, Samsudin NIP. Co-Inoculation of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus to Assess the Efficacy of Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains in Growth Inhibition and Aflatoxin B1 Reduction. Agriculture. 2021; 11(3):198. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030198

Chicago/Turabian Style

Khan, Rahim, Farinazleen M. Ghazali, Nor A. Mahyudin, and Nik I.P. Samsudin. 2021. "Co-Inoculation of Aflatoxigenic and Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains of Aspergillus flavus to Assess the Efficacy of Non-Aflatoxigenic Strains in Growth Inhibition and Aflatoxin B1 Reduction" Agriculture 11, no. 3: 198. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture11030198

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