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Ancient Wheat Species (Triticum sphaerococcum Perc. and T. persicum Vav.) in Organic Farming: Influence of Sowing Density on Agronomic Traits, Pests and Diseases Occurrence, and Weed Infestation

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Department of Agronomy, UTP University of Science and Technology, Kaliskiego 7 str., 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Department of Biology and Plant Protection, UTP University of Science and Technology, Kaliskiego 7 str., 85-796 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Department of Biology and Animal Environment, UTP University of Science and Technology, Mazowiecka 28 str., 85-084 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Laboratory of Economics and Counseling in Agribusiness, UTP University of Science and Technology in Bydgoszcz, Fordońska 430 str., 85-790 Bydgoszcz, Poland
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2020, 10(11), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110556
Received: 25 October 2020 / Revised: 11 November 2020 / Accepted: 17 November 2020 / Published: 19 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Agricultural Technology)
Crop management should be determined to reintroduce ancient wheat. This study aimed to determine: i. the response of the yield of ancient wheat on sowing density; ii. the impact of sowing density on plant health, weed infestation and pest occurrence. Field experiments were carried out in Poland, on three organic farms. The factors were: (1) wheat species: Persian wheat (Triticum persicum Vav.) and Indian dwarf wheat (T. sphaerococcum Perc.), (2) sowing density (400, 500, and 600 grains m−2). Increasing the sowing density of T. sphaerococcum from 400 to 600 grains m−2 increases the grain yield and reduces the pest pressure (Oulema spp. and Aphididae). Sowing densities did not affect the severity of powdery mildew at stem elongation as well as root rot and eyespot at the development of fruit. At the highest sowing density, the leaf area with tan spot symptoms was the highest. The eyespot symptoms occurred more frequently and the damaged plant surface caused by Oulema spp. was larger on T. sphaerococcum. Persian wheat turned out to be more susceptible to weed infestation. Indian dwarf wheat and Persian wheat are useful for organic farming, and the sowing density should be 500 or 600 grains m−2 and 400 grains m−2, respectively. View Full-Text
Keywords: crop density; insects; organic cereals; sowing rate; tillering crop density; insects; organic cereals; sowing rate; tillering
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MDPI and ACS Style

Szczepanek, M.; Lemańczyk, G.; Lamparski, R.; Wilczewski, E.; Graczyk, R.; Nowak, R.; Prus, P. Ancient Wheat Species (Triticum sphaerococcum Perc. and T. persicum Vav.) in Organic Farming: Influence of Sowing Density on Agronomic Traits, Pests and Diseases Occurrence, and Weed Infestation. Agriculture 2020, 10, 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110556

AMA Style

Szczepanek M, Lemańczyk G, Lamparski R, Wilczewski E, Graczyk R, Nowak R, Prus P. Ancient Wheat Species (Triticum sphaerococcum Perc. and T. persicum Vav.) in Organic Farming: Influence of Sowing Density on Agronomic Traits, Pests and Diseases Occurrence, and Weed Infestation. Agriculture. 2020; 10(11):556. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110556

Chicago/Turabian Style

Szczepanek, Małgorzata, Grzegorz Lemańczyk, Robert Lamparski, Edward Wilczewski, Radomir Graczyk, Rafał Nowak, and Piotr Prus. 2020. "Ancient Wheat Species (Triticum sphaerococcum Perc. and T. persicum Vav.) in Organic Farming: Influence of Sowing Density on Agronomic Traits, Pests and Diseases Occurrence, and Weed Infestation" Agriculture 10, no. 11: 556. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110556

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