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Open AccessArticle

Neonicotinoid Residues in Sugar Beet Plants and Soil under Different Agro-Climatic Conditions

1
Department of Agricultural Zoology, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, Svetosimunska Street 25, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
2
Euroinspekt Croatiakontrola Ltd. for Control of Goods and Engineering, Karlovacka 4 L, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
3
Department of Food Engineering, Faculty of Food Technology and Biotechnology, University of Zagreb, Pierottijeva Street 6, 10000 Zagreb, Croatia
4
Croatian Agency for Agriculture and Food, Vinkovačka Street 63c, 31000 Osijek, Croatia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2020, 10(10), 484; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100484
Received: 28 September 2020 / Revised: 14 October 2020 / Accepted: 15 October 2020 / Published: 19 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management of Field Crops)
European sugar beet was mostly grown from seeds treated by neonicotinoids which provided efficient control of some important sugar beet pests (aphids and flea beetles). The EU commission regulation from 2018 to ultimately restrict the outdoor application of imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and clothianidin could significantly affect European sugar beet production. Although alternative insecticides (spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, neem) are shown to have certain effects on particular pests when applied as seed treatment, it is not likely that in near future any insecticide will be identified as a good candidate for neonicotinoids’ substitution. The aim of this research is to evaluate residue levels (LC-MS/MS method) of imidacloprid and thiamethoxam applied as seed dressing in sugar beet plants during two growing seasons in fields located in different agro-climatic regions and in greenhouse trials. In 2015, 25 to 27 days post planting (PP) maximum of 0.028% of imidacloprid and 0.077% of thiamethoxam were recovered from the emerged plants, respectively. In 2016, the recovery rate from the emerged plants 40 days PP was 0.003% for imidacloprid and 50 days PP was up to 0.022% for thiamethoxam. There were no neonicotinoid residues above the maximum residue level in roots at the time of harvesting, except in case of samples from thiamethoxam variant collected from greenhouse trials in 2016 (0.053 mg/kg). The results of this research lead to the conclusion that the seed treatment of sugar beet leaves minimal trace in plants because of the complete degradation while different behavior has been observed in the two fields and a glasshouse trial regarding the residues in soil. Dry conditions, leaching incapacity, or irregular flushing can result in higher concentrations in soil which can present potential risk for the succeeding crops. The results of our study could provide additional arguments about possible risk assessment for seed treatment in sugar beet. View Full-Text
Keywords: sugar beet; degradation; residues; neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; thiamethoxam sugar beet; degradation; residues; neonicotinoids; imidacloprid; thiamethoxam
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MDPI and ACS Style

Viric Gasparic, H.; Grubelic, M.; Dragovic Uzelac, V.; Bazok, R.; Cacija, M.; Drmic, Z.; Lemic, D. Neonicotinoid Residues in Sugar Beet Plants and Soil under Different Agro-Climatic Conditions. Agriculture 2020, 10, 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100484

AMA Style

Viric Gasparic H, Grubelic M, Dragovic Uzelac V, Bazok R, Cacija M, Drmic Z, Lemic D. Neonicotinoid Residues in Sugar Beet Plants and Soil under Different Agro-Climatic Conditions. Agriculture. 2020; 10(10):484. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100484

Chicago/Turabian Style

Viric Gasparic, Helena; Grubelic, Mirela; Dragovic Uzelac, Verica; Bazok, Renata; Cacija, Maja; Drmic, Zrinka; Lemic, Darija. 2020. "Neonicotinoid Residues in Sugar Beet Plants and Soil under Different Agro-Climatic Conditions" Agriculture 10, no. 10: 484. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10100484

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