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Article

Pyrenophora teres and Rhynchosporium secalis Establishment in a Mediterranean Malt Barley Field: Assessing Spatial, Temporal and Management Effects

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Laboratory of Agronomy, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
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Laboratory of Agricultural Hydraulics, Department of Natural Resources Management & Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
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Laboratory of Plant Pathology, Department of Crop Science, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
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Athenian Brewery S.A, 102 Kifissos Avenue, Aegaleo, 12241 Athens, Greece
5
Laboratory of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, Department of Natural Resources Management & Agricultural Engineering, Agricultural University of Athens, 75 Iera Odos, 11855 Athens, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Agriculture 2020, 10(11), 553; https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110553
Received: 7 October 2020 / Revised: 8 November 2020 / Accepted: 16 November 2020 / Published: 18 November 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Integrated Pest Management of Field Crops)
Malt barley is one of the promising crops in Greece, mainly due to high yields and contract farming, which have led to an increase in malt barley acreage. Net form net blotch (NFNB), caused by Pyrenophora teres f. teres, and barley leaf scald, caused by Rhynchosporium secalis, are among the most important barley diseases worldwide and particularly in Greece. Their occurrence in malt barley can exert a significant negative effect on malt barley grain yield and quality. An experimental trial across two growing seasons was implemented in Greece in order (i) to estimate the epidemiology of NFNB and leaf scald in a barley disease-free area when the initial inoculation of the field occurs through infected seeds, (ii) to explore the spatial dynamics of disease spread under the interaction of the nitrogen rate and genotype when there are limited sources of infected host residues in the soil and (iii) to assess the relationship among the nitrogen rate, grain yield, quality variables (i.e., grain protein content and grain size) and disease severity. It was confirmed that both NFNB and leaf scald can be carried over from one season to the next on infected seed under Mediterranean conditions. However, the disease severity was more pronounced after the barley tillering phase when the soil had been successfully inoculated, which supports the hypothesis that the most important source of primary inoculum for NFNB comes from infected host residue. Increasing the rate of nitrogen application, when malt barley was cultivated in the same field for a second year in a row, caused a non-significant increase in disease severity for both pathogens from anthesis onwards. However, hotspot and commonality analyses revealed that spatial and genotypic effects were mainly responsible for hiding this effect. In addition, it was found that the effect of disease infections on yield, grain size and grain protein content varied in relation to the genotype, pathogen and stage of crop development. The importance of crop residues in the evolution of both diseases was also highlighted. View Full-Text
Keywords: malt barley; barley net blotch; barley leaf scald; nitrogen rate; genotype; crop residues malt barley; barley net blotch; barley leaf scald; nitrogen rate; genotype; crop residues
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MDPI and ACS Style

Vahamidis, P.; Stefopoulou, A.; Lagogianni, C.S.; Economou, G.; Dercas, N.; Kotoulas, V.; Kalivas, D.; Tsitsigiannis, D.I. Pyrenophora teres and Rhynchosporium secalis Establishment in a Mediterranean Malt Barley Field: Assessing Spatial, Temporal and Management Effects. Agriculture 2020, 10, 553. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110553

AMA Style

Vahamidis P, Stefopoulou A, Lagogianni CS, Economou G, Dercas N, Kotoulas V, Kalivas D, Tsitsigiannis DI. Pyrenophora teres and Rhynchosporium secalis Establishment in a Mediterranean Malt Barley Field: Assessing Spatial, Temporal and Management Effects. Agriculture. 2020; 10(11):553. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110553

Chicago/Turabian Style

Vahamidis, Petros, Angeliki Stefopoulou, Christina S. Lagogianni, Garyfalia Economou, Nicholas Dercas, Vassilis Kotoulas, Dionissios Kalivas, and Dimitrios I. Tsitsigiannis 2020. "Pyrenophora teres and Rhynchosporium secalis Establishment in a Mediterranean Malt Barley Field: Assessing Spatial, Temporal and Management Effects" Agriculture 10, no. 11: 553. https://doi.org/10.3390/agriculture10110553

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