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Open AccessArticle

Association of Systemic Comorbidities with Dry Eye Disease

1
Department of Ophthalmology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo 1608582, Japan
2
Department of Ophthalmology, Kyorin University School of Medicine, Tokyo 1818611, Japan
3
Department of Japan Medical Affairs, Santen Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd., Osaka 5308552, Japan
4
Department of Ophthalmology, Juntendo University Graduate School of Medicine, Tokyo 1138431, Japan
5
Department of Ophthalmology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto 6020841, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(7), 2040; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072040
Received: 2 June 2020 / Revised: 21 June 2020 / Accepted: 23 June 2020 / Published: 29 June 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cutting-Edge Topics in Dry Eye Disease)
We investigated the association between dry eye disease and systemic comorbidities, including dry eye subtype, quality of life (QOL) and health utility among patients with dry eye disease. This cross-sectional, observational study enrolled 449 patients with dry eye disease (386 females; mean age, 62.6 ± 15.7 [range, 21–90] years). Ophthalmic examination findings included tear film break-up time (TBUT), Schirmer I value and keratoconjunctival staining score. QOL and health utility were evaluated using the Dry Eye-Related Quality-of-Life Score (DEQS) and Human Utility Index Mark 3 (HUI-3), respectively. Background information, including systemic comorbidities, was obtained. Prevalence of systemic comorbidities was 48.8% (219/449). No significant difference occurred between DEQS and systemic comorbidity. However, patients with dry eye disease and systemic comorbidities (depression and insomnia) exhibited significantly worse ocular surface parameters, particularly regarding TBUT, than those without. Dry eye disease with insomnia or depression comorbidity significantly correlated with friction-related diseases (including conjunctivochalasis or lid wiper epitheliopathy). A high prevalence of several systemic comorbidities occurred in patients with dry eye disease. This study shows an association between ocular signs and systemic comorbidities, particularly depression and insomnia. Ophthalmologists should be aware of patients’ systemic comorbidities in the diagnosis and management of dry eye disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: cross-sectional study; dry eye disease; systemic comorbidity cross-sectional study; dry eye disease; systemic comorbidity
MDPI and ACS Style

Kawashima, M.; Yamada, M.; Shigeyasu, C.; Suwaki, K.; Uchino, M.; Hiratsuka, Y.; Yokoi, N.; Tsubota, K.; for the DECS-J Study Group. Association of Systemic Comorbidities with Dry Eye Disease. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2040.

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