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Open AccessArticle

Determinants of Performance in the Timed Up-and-Go and Six-Minute Walk Tests in Young and Old Healthy Adults

Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyvsäkylä, FI-40014 Jyvsäkylä, Finland
Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Department of Medicine and Aged Care, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
Neuromuscular Investigation Center, Institute of Myology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, 73013 Paris, France
Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine, School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
Institute of Sport Science and Innovations, Lithuanian Sports University, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lithuania
University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Targu Mures, 540142 Targu Mures, Romania
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1561;
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia: Skeletal Muscle Health and Ageing)
The aim of this study was to assess associations between performance in the timed up-and-go (TUG) and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) with physiological characteristics in young and old healthy adults. Thereto, we determined TUG, 6MWD, normalised jump power, centre of pressure displacement during 1-leg standing, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR%) and height in 419 healthy young (men: 23.5 ± 2.8 years, women: 23.2 ± 2.9 years) and old (men: 74.6 ± 3.2 years, women: 74.1 ± 3.2 years) adults. Normalised jump power explained 8% and 19% of TUG in young (p = 0.025) and older men (p < 0.001), respectively. When fat mass percentage and age were added to normalised jump power, 30% of TUG was explained in older men (R2adj = 0.30, p < 0.001 to 0.106). Appendicular lean muscle mass percentage (ALM%) and age were the best determinants of TUG for older women (R2adj = 0.16, p < 0.001 to 0.01). HR% explained 17–39% of 6MWD across all groups (R2adj = 0.17 to 39, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in men, jump power was a key determinant for TUG, while in old women only it was the ALM%. As HR% was the most important determinant of 6MWD, motivational bias needs to be considered in the interpretation of this test.
Keywords: muscle; spirometry; ageing; physical functional performance muscle; spirometry; ageing; physical functional performance
MDPI and ACS Style

Montgomery, G.; McPhee, J.; Pääsuke, M.; Sipilä, S.; Maier, A.B.; Hogrel, J.-Y.; Degens, H. Determinants of Performance in the Timed Up-and-Go and Six-Minute Walk Tests in Young and Old Healthy Adults. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1561.

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