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Open AccessArticle

Determinants of Performance in the Timed Up-and-Go and Six-Minute Walk Tests in Young and Old Healthy Adults

1
Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine, Department of Sport and Exercise Sciences, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M15 6BH, UK
2
Institute of Sport Sciences and Physiotherapy, Faculty of Medicine, University of Tartu, 51014 Tartu, Estonia
3
Gerontology Research Center, Faculty of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Jyvsäkylä, FI-40014 Jyvsäkylä, Finland
4
Department of Human Movement Sciences, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam, Amsterdam Movement Sciences, 1081 BT Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
Department of Medicine and Aged Care, The Royal Melbourne Hospital, The University of Melbourne, Melbourne, VIC 3010, Australia
6
Neuromuscular Investigation Center, Institute of Myology, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, 73013 Paris, France
7
Musculoskeletal Science and Sports Medicine, School of Healthcare Science, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester M1 5GD, UK
8
Institute of Sport Science and Innovations, Lithuanian Sports University, LT-44221 Kaunas, Lithuania
9
University of Medicine and Pharmacy of Targu Mures, 540142 Targu Mures, Romania
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(5), 1561; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9051561
Received: 8 April 2020 / Revised: 13 May 2020 / Accepted: 15 May 2020 / Published: 21 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sarcopenia: Skeletal Muscle Health and Ageing)
The aim of this study was to assess associations between performance in the timed up-and-go (TUG) and six-minute walk distance (6MWD) with physiological characteristics in young and old healthy adults. Thereto, we determined TUG, 6MWD, normalised jump power, centre of pressure displacement during 1-leg standing, forced expiratory volume in 1 s, percentage of age-predicted maximal heart rate (HR%) and height in 419 healthy young (men: 23.5 ± 2.8 years, women: 23.2 ± 2.9 years) and old (men: 74.6 ± 3.2 years, women: 74.1 ± 3.2 years) adults. Normalised jump power explained 8% and 19% of TUG in young (p = 0.025) and older men (p < 0.001), respectively. When fat mass percentage and age were added to normalised jump power, 30% of TUG was explained in older men (R2adj = 0.30, p < 0.001 to 0.106). Appendicular lean muscle mass percentage (ALM%) and age were the best determinants of TUG for older women (R2adj = 0.16, p < 0.001 to 0.01). HR% explained 17–39% of 6MWD across all groups (R2adj = 0.17 to 39, p < 0.001). In conclusion, in men, jump power was a key determinant for TUG, while in old women only it was the ALM%. As HR% was the most important determinant of 6MWD, motivational bias needs to be considered in the interpretation of this test.
Keywords: muscle; spirometry; ageing; physical functional performance muscle; spirometry; ageing; physical functional performance
MDPI and ACS Style

Montgomery, G.; McPhee, J.; Pääsuke, M.; Sipilä, S.; Maier, A.B.; Hogrel, J.-Y.; Degens, H. Determinants of Performance in the Timed Up-and-Go and Six-Minute Walk Tests in Young and Old Healthy Adults. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 1561.

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