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Open AccessReview

Photochemical Internalization for Intracellular Drug Delivery. From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Research

1
UCL Medical School, London WC1E 6DE, UK
2
North End Medical Centre, London W14 9PR, UK
3
Department of Radiation Biology, Institute of Cancer Research, Oslo University Hospital, 0379 Oslo, Norway
4
Beckman Laser Institute and Medical Clinic, University of California, Irvine, CA 92617, USA
5
PCI Biotech AS, 0379 Oslo, Norway
6
College of Dental Medicine, University of Sharjah, P. O. Box 27272 Sharjah, UAE
7
Unit of Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS), UCL Eastman Dental Institute, London WC1X 8LD, UK
8
Department of Pharmacy, University of Oslo, 0316 Oslo, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 528; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020528
Received: 20 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 1 February 2020 / Published: 14 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue The Past, Present and Future of Photodynamic Therapy for Cancers)
Photochemical internalisation (PCI) is a unique intervention which involves the release of endocytosed macromolecules into the cytoplasmic matrix. PCI is based on the use of photosensitizers placed in endocytic vesicles that, following light activation, lead to rupture of the endocytic vesicles and the release of the macromolecules into the cytoplasmic matrix. This technology has been shown to improve the biological activity of a number of macromolecules that do not readily penetrate the plasma membrane, including type I ribosome-inactivating proteins (RIPs), gene-encoding plasmids, adenovirus and oligonucleotides and certain chemotherapeutics, such as bleomycin. This new intervention has also been found appealing for intracellular delivery of drugs incorporated into nanocarriers and for cancer vaccination. PCI is currently being evaluated in clinical trials. Data from the first-in-human phase I clinical trial as well as an update on the development of the PCI technology towards clinical practice is presented here. View Full-Text
Keywords: photochemical internalization; photodynamic; drug delivery; endocytosis; lysosomes; nanotechnology; immunotoxin; nucleic acids; gene therapy; bleomycin photochemical internalization; photodynamic; drug delivery; endocytosis; lysosomes; nanotechnology; immunotoxin; nucleic acids; gene therapy; bleomycin
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jerjes, W.; Theodossiou, T.A.; Hirschberg, H.; Høgset, A.; Weyergang, A.; Selbo, P.K.; Hamdoon, Z.; Hopper, C.; Berg, K. Photochemical Internalization for Intracellular Drug Delivery. From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Research. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 528. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020528

AMA Style

Jerjes W, Theodossiou TA, Hirschberg H, Høgset A, Weyergang A, Selbo PK, Hamdoon Z, Hopper C, Berg K. Photochemical Internalization for Intracellular Drug Delivery. From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Research. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2020; 9(2):528. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020528

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jerjes, Waseem; Theodossiou, Theodossis A.; Hirschberg, Henry; Høgset, Anders; Weyergang, Anette; Selbo, Pål K.; Hamdoon, Zaid; Hopper, Colin; Berg, Kristian. 2020. "Photochemical Internalization for Intracellular Drug Delivery. From Basic Mechanisms to Clinical Research" J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 2: 528. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020528

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Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

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