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Open AccessArticle

Experienced Burden of and Adherence to Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment in Persons with Affective Disorders

1
Department of Research and Innovation, GGZ inGeest, Specialized Mental Health Care, 1081 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
2
Department of Psychiatry, Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, Amsterdam UMC, Vrije Universiteit, 1081 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
3
Interdisciplinary Centre for Psychopathology and Emotion Regulation, Department of Psychiatry, University Medical Centre Groningen, University of Groningen, 9713 Groningen, The Netherlands
4
Department of Clinical, Neuro and Developmental Psychology, Clinical Psychology Section, Vrije Universiteit Amsterdam and the Amsterdam Public Health Research Institute, 1081 Amsterdam, The Netherlands
5
Institute of Telepsychiatry, University of Southern Denmark, 5000 Odense, Denmark
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(2), 322; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9020322
Received: 28 December 2019 / Revised: 14 January 2020 / Accepted: 21 January 2020 / Published: 23 January 2020
(1) Background: The use of smartphone-based ecological momentary assessment (EMA) questionnaires in affective disorder research has rapidly increased. Though, a thorough understanding of experienced burden of and adherence to EMA is crucial in determining the usefulness of EMA. (2) Methods: Persons with current affective disorders (n = 100), remitted persons (n = 190), and healthy controls (n = 94) participated in a smartphone-based EMA two-week monitoring period. Our primary outcomes were (momentary) perceived burden of and adherence to EMA. (3) Results: In the whole sample, lower positive and higher negative affect were associated with slightly higher levels of perceived momentary burden (B = −0.23 [95%CI = −0.27–0.19], B = 0.30 [95%CI = 0.24–0.37], respectively). The persons with current affective disorders reported slightly higher levels of experienced momentary burden (Mdn = 1.98 [IQR = 1.28–2.57]), than the remitted persons (Mdn = 1.64 [IQR = 1.11–2.24]) and healthy controls (Mdn = 1.28 [IQR = 1.04–1.92]). Nevertheless, the persons with current affective disorders still showed very high adherence rates (Mdn = 94.3% [IQR = 87.9–97.1]), at rates on a par with the remitted persons (Mdn = 94.3% [IQR = 90.0–97.1]) and healthy controls (Mdn = 94.3% [IQR = 90.0–98.6]). (4) Discussion: Frequent momentary questionnaires of mental well-being are slightly more burdensome to the persons with current affective disorders, but this does not seem to have a negative impact on adherence. Their high rate of adherence to EMA—which was similar to that in remitted persons and healthy controls —suggests that it is feasible to apply (short-duration) EMA. View Full-Text
Keywords: affective disorders; depression; anxiety disorders; ecological momentary assessment; burden; adherence affective disorders; depression; anxiety disorders; ecological momentary assessment; burden; adherence
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van Genugten, C.R.; Schuurmans, J.; Lamers, F.; Riese, H.; Penninx, B.W.J.H.; Schoevers, R.A.; Riper, H.M.; Smit, J.H. Experienced Burden of and Adherence to Smartphone-Based Ecological Momentary Assessment in Persons with Affective Disorders. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 322.

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