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Open AccessArticle

SERS-Based Liquid Biopsy of Gastrointestinal Tumors Using a Portable Raman Device Operating in a Clinical Environment

1
Faculty of Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, 400012 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
2
Clinical Municipal Hospital, 400139 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
3
Faculty of Physics, Babeș-Bolyai University, 400084 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
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MEDFUTURE Research Center for Advanced Medicine, Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine & Pharmacy, 400349 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
5
National Institute for Research and Development of Isotopic and Molecular Technologies, 400293 Cluj-Napoca, Romania
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to the work and are considered co-first authors.
J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9(1), 212; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm9010212
Received: 9 December 2019 / Revised: 6 January 2020 / Accepted: 8 January 2020 / Published: 13 January 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Oncology)
Early diagnosis based on screening is recognized as one of the most efficient ways of mitigating cancer-associated morbidity and mortality. Therefore, reliable but cost-effective methodologies are needed. By using a portable Raman spectrometer, a small and easily transportable instrument, the needs of modern diagnosis in terms of rapidity, ease of use and flexibility are met. In this study, we analyzed the diagnostic accuracy yielded by the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-based profiling of serum, performed with a portable Raman device operating in a real-life hospital environment, in the case of 53 patients with gastrointestinal tumors and 25 control subjects. The SERS spectra of serum displayed intense bands attributed to carotenoids and purine metabolites such as uric acid, xanthine and hypoxanthine, with different intensities between the cancer and control groups. Based on principal component analysis-quadratic discriminant analysis (PCA-QDA), the cancer and control groups were classified with an accuracy of 76.92%. By combining SERS spectra with general inflammatory markers such as C-reactive protein levels, neutrophil counts, platelet counts and hemoglobin levels, the discrimination accuracy was increased to 83.33%. This study highlights the potential of SERS-based liquid biopsy for the point-of-care diagnosis of gastrointestinal tumors using a portable Raman device operating in a clinical setting. View Full-Text
Keywords: gastrointestinal tumors; inflammatory markers; liquid biopsy; principal component analysis-quadratic discriminant analysis; portable Raman spectrometer; surface-enhanced Raman scattering gastrointestinal tumors; inflammatory markers; liquid biopsy; principal component analysis-quadratic discriminant analysis; portable Raman spectrometer; surface-enhanced Raman scattering
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Avram, L.; Iancu, S.D.; Stefancu, A.; Moisoiu, V.; Colnita, A.; Marconi, D.; Donca, V.; Buzdugan, E.; Craciun, R.; Leopold, N.; Crisan, N.; Coman, I.; Crisan, D. SERS-Based Liquid Biopsy of Gastrointestinal Tumors Using a Portable Raman Device Operating in a Clinical Environment. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 212.

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