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Open AccessArticle

Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Filler Contributes to Tertiary Dentin Formation through a Mechanism Different Than That of Hydraulic Calcium-Silicate Cement

1
Department of Restorative Dentistry and Endodontology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
2
Division for Interdisciplinary Dentistry, Osaka University Dental Hospital, 1-8 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
3
Department of Oral and Molecular Microbiology, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
4
Bruker Japan K.K. Nano Analytics Division, 3-9 Moriyacho, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-0022, Japan
5
Genome Information Research Center, Research Institute for Microbial Diseases, Osaka University, 1-1, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
6
Department of Biomaterials Science, Osaka University Graduate School of Dentistry, 1-8, Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(9), 1440; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8091440
Received: 6 August 2019 / Revised: 3 September 2019 / Accepted: 9 September 2019 / Published: 11 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Innovations in Endodontic Dentistry)
The induction of tissue mineralization and the mechanism by which surface pre-reacted glass-ionomer (S-PRG) cement influences pulpal healing remain unclear. We evaluated S-PRG cement-induced tertiary dentin formation in vivo, and its effect on the pulp cell healing process in vitro. Induced tertiary dentin formation was evaluated with micro-computed tomography (μCT) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The distribution of elements from the S-PRG cement in pulpal tissue was confirmed by micro-X-ray fluorescence (μXRF). The effects of S-PRG cement on cytotoxicity, proliferation, formation of mineralized nodules, and gene expression in human dental pulp stem cells (hDPSCs) were assessed in vitro. μCT and SEM revealed that S-PRG induced tertiary dentin formation with similar characteristics to that induced by hydraulic calcium-silicate cement (ProRoot mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA)). μXRF showed Sr and Si ion transfer into pulpal tissue from S-PRG cement. Notably, S-PRG cement and MTA showed similar biocompatibility. A co-culture of hDPSCs and S-PRG discs promoted mineralized nodule formation on surrounding cells. Additionally, S-PRG cement regulated the expression of genes related to osteo/dentinogenic differentiation. MTA and S-PRG regulated gene expression in hDPSCs, but the patterns of regulation differed. S-PRG cement upregulated CXCL-12 and TGF-β1 gene expression. These findings showed that S-PRG and MTA exhibit similar effects on dental pulp through different mechanisms. View Full-Text
Keywords: direct pulp capping; surface pre-reacted glass filler; µCT; µXRF; RNA sequence direct pulp capping; surface pre-reacted glass filler; µCT; µXRF; RNA sequence
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Okamoto, M.; Ali, M.; Komichi, S.; Watanabe, M.; Huang, H.; Ito, Y.; Miura, J.; Hirose, Y.; Mizuhira, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Okuzaki, D.; Kawabata, S.; Imazato, S.; Hayashi, M. Surface Pre-Reacted Glass Filler Contributes to Tertiary Dentin Formation through a Mechanism Different Than That of Hydraulic Calcium-Silicate Cement. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 1440.

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