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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Statin on Cancer Incidence: An Umbrella Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

1
College of Medicine, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju 52727, Korea
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Department of Pediatrics, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Yonsei-ro 50, Seodaemun-gu, C.P.O. Box 8044, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Division of Pediatric Nephrology, Severance Children’s Hospital, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Luton & Dunstable University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Lewsey Road, Luton LU4 ODZ, UK
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Department of Internal Medicine IV (Nephrology and Hypertension), Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
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Department of Medical Oncology, Amsterdam UMC, Cancer Center Amsterdam, VU University, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
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Department of Global Health and Population, Harvard TH Chan School of Public Health, 67 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02115, USA
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Institute of Kidney Disease Research, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul 03722, Korea
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Department of Medical Oncology, Medical University Innsbruck, 6020 Innsbruck, Austria
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(6), 819; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060819
Received: 31 March 2019 / Revised: 30 May 2019 / Accepted: 3 June 2019 / Published: 8 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current and Emerging Uses of Statins in Clinical Therapeutics)
Statins are reported to reduce the risk of cancer, but the results of various published studies have been contradictory. We carried out an umbrella review to provide an overview and understand the strength of evidence, extent of potential biases, and validity of claimed associations between the use of statins and cancer incidence. We comprehensively re-analyzed the data of meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies on associations between statin use and cancer incidence. We also assessed the strength of evidence of the re-analyzed outcomes, which were determined from the criteria including statistical significance of the p-value of random-effects, as well as fixed-effects meta-analyses, small study effects, between-study heterogeneity, and a 95% prediction interval. Using a conventional method to assess the significance of meta-analysis (p-value < 0.05), statins had a statistically significant effect on reducing cancer incidence in 10 of 18 types of cancer. When we graded the level of evidence, no cancer type showed convincing evidence, and four cancers (esophageal cancer, hematological cancer, leukemia, and liver cancer) showed suggestive evidence of a preventive effect. There was weak evidence of an association with six cancers, and no significance for the remaining eight cancers. None of the meta-analyses of RCTs on the association of statin and cancer incidence showed a statistical significance. Although there was a preventive effect of statin on cancer incidence in 10 of the 18 cancer types, the evidence supporting the use of statins to reduce cancer incidence was low. Therefore, the associations between statin use and cancer incidence should be carefully considered by clinicians. View Full-Text
Keywords: statin; cancer; meta-analysis; umbrella review statin; cancer; meta-analysis; umbrella review
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MDPI and ACS Style

Jeong, G.H.; Lee, K.H.; Kim, J.Y.; Eisenhut, M.; Kronbichler, A.; van der Vliet, H.J.; Hong, S.H.; Shin, J.I.; Gamerith, G. Effect of Statin on Cancer Incidence: An Umbrella Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060819

AMA Style

Jeong GH, Lee KH, Kim JY, Eisenhut M, Kronbichler A, van der Vliet HJ, Hong SH, Shin JI, Gamerith G. Effect of Statin on Cancer Incidence: An Umbrella Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2019; 8(6):819. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060819

Chicago/Turabian Style

Jeong, Gwang H.; Lee, Keum H.; Kim, Jong Y.; Eisenhut, Michael; Kronbichler, Andreas; van der Vliet, Hans J.; Hong, Sung H.; Shin, Jae I.; Gamerith, Gabriele. 2019. "Effect of Statin on Cancer Incidence: An Umbrella Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis" J. Clin. Med. 8, no. 6: 819. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8060819

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