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J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8(1), 21; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm8010021

Main Oral Manifestations in Immune-Mediated and Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases

1
Department of Clinical Sciences and Community Health, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milano, Italy
2
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Dermatology Unit, IRCCS Fondazione Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milano, Italy
3
Department of Biomedical, Surgical and Dental Sciences, Università degli Studi di Milano, 20122 Milano, Italy
4
Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, Università degli Studi di Milano, Internal Medicine, IRCCS Fondazione Ca’ Granda, Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, 20122 Milano, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 November 2018 / Revised: 18 December 2018 / Accepted: 20 December 2018 / Published: 25 December 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Immunology)
Full-Text   |   PDF [21778 KB, uploaded 25 December 2018]   |  

Abstract

Oral manifestations are frequent in patients with rheumatic diseases. The aim of this review is to offer readers practical advice concerning the onset, diagnosis and treatment of the main oral manifestations encountered in rheumatological and dental clinics. Signs and symptoms such as oral hyposalivation, xerostomia, temporomandibular joint disorders, periodontal disease, and dysphagia may be the first expression of a number of rheumatic diseases. Some of these manifestations are aspecific and very frequent, such as oral aphthosis, which can be the first manifestation in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus; some are potentially dangerous, such as jaw claudication during the course of giant cell arteritis; and some are very rare but peculiar, such as strawberry-like gingivitis in patients with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Other oral manifestations are due to adverse reactions to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. Oral alterations in rheumatic diseases are frequently overlooked in clinical practice, but their prompt recognition not only allows the local lesions to be appropriately treated, but also makes it possible to identify an underlying systemic disease. View Full-Text
Keywords: rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; Behçet’s disease; Sjögren’s syndrome; oral lesions rheumatoid arthritis; systemic lupus erythematosus; Behçet’s disease; Sjögren’s syndrome; oral lesions
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Gualtierotti, R.; Marzano, A.V.; Spadari, F.; Cugno, M. Main Oral Manifestations in Immune-Mediated and Inflammatory Rheumatic Diseases. J. Clin. Med. 2019, 8, 21.

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