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Review

XR (Extended Reality: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality) Technology in Spine Medicine: Status Quo and Quo Vadis

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saga University, 5-1-1 Nabeshima, Saga 849-8501, Japan
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, School of Medicine, Fukushima Medical University, Fukushima 960-1295, Japan
3
Innovation Lab, Teikyo University Okinaga Research Institute, Tokyo 173-8605, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Robert C. Cantu
J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11(2), 470; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020470
Received: 13 December 2021 / Revised: 1 January 2022 / Accepted: 11 January 2022 / Published: 17 January 2022
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Frontiers in Spinal Surgery)
In recent years, with the rapid advancement and consumerization of virtual reality, augmented reality, mixed reality, and extended reality (XR) technology, the use of XR technology in spine medicine has also become increasingly popular. The rising use of XR technology in spine medicine has also been accelerated by the recent wave of digital transformation (i.e., case-specific three-dimensional medical images and holograms, wearable sensors, video cameras, fifth generation, artificial intelligence, and head-mounted displays), and further accelerated by the COVID-19 pandemic and the increase in minimally invasive spine surgery. The COVID-19 pandemic has a negative impact on society, but positive impacts can also be expected, including the continued spread and adoption of telemedicine services (i.e., tele-education, tele-surgery, tele-rehabilitation) that promote digital transformation. The purpose of this narrative review is to describe the accelerators of XR (VR, AR, MR) technology in spine medicine and then to provide a comprehensive review of the use of XR technology in spine medicine, including surgery, consultation, education, and rehabilitation, as well as to identify its limitations and future perspectives (status quo and quo vadis). View Full-Text
Keywords: augmented reality; extended reality; mixed reality; navigation; spine surgery; virtual reality; telemedicine augmented reality; extended reality; mixed reality; navigation; spine surgery; virtual reality; telemedicine
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MDPI and ACS Style

Morimoto, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Hirata, H.; Otani, K.; Sugimoto, M.; Tsukamoto, M.; Yoshihara, T.; Ueno, M.; Mawatari, M. XR (Extended Reality: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality) Technology in Spine Medicine: Status Quo and Quo Vadis. J. Clin. Med. 2022, 11, 470. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020470

AMA Style

Morimoto T, Kobayashi T, Hirata H, Otani K, Sugimoto M, Tsukamoto M, Yoshihara T, Ueno M, Mawatari M. XR (Extended Reality: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality) Technology in Spine Medicine: Status Quo and Quo Vadis. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2022; 11(2):470. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020470

Chicago/Turabian Style

Morimoto, Tadatsugu, Takaomi Kobayashi, Hirohito Hirata, Koji Otani, Maki Sugimoto, Masatsugu Tsukamoto, Tomohito Yoshihara, Masaya Ueno, and Masaaki Mawatari. 2022. "XR (Extended Reality: Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Mixed Reality) Technology in Spine Medicine: Status Quo and Quo Vadis" Journal of Clinical Medicine 11, no. 2: 470. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm11020470

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