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Article

Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate

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Instituto Maimónides de Investigación Biomédica de Córdoba (IMIBIC), Universidad de Córdoba (UCO), Hospital Universitario Reina Sofía (HURS), Andalucía, 14004 Córdoba, Spain
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Ciber Fragility and Healthy Aging (CIBERFES), 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Nursing and Healthcare Research Unit (Investén-isciii), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
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Experimental and Clinical Physiopathology Research Group CTS-1039, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Jaén, Campus Universitario Las Lagunillas, 23009 Jaén, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Napoleon Waszkiewicz
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(7), 1424; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071424
Received: 12 March 2021 / Revised: 26 March 2021 / Accepted: 28 March 2021 / Published: 1 April 2021
(This article belongs to the Collection Advances in Markers of Psychiatric Disorders)
The pain assessment in advanced dementia (PAINAD) appears to be a clinically useful tool. However, the salivary determination of tumor necrosis factor receptor type II (sTNF-RII) and secretory IgA (sIgA) as pain biomarkers is still incipient. The aim was to correlate the PAINAD score with sTNF-RII and sIgA biomarker levels in the saliva of patients with advanced dementia. In this regard, a cross-sectional study was conducted. The sample consisted of 75 elderly patients with a clinical diagnosis of dementia and a global deterioration scale (GDS) score of 5 to 7. The PAINAD scale was determined by a previously trained professional and the collection of salivary samples was performed using the passive secretion method. Human sTNF-RII and sIgA using ELISA kits. The results showed a correlation between the PAINAD scale (numeric, binary, and recoded) and sTNF-RII and sIgA (p < 0.001). No association between the sociodemographic and clinical variables and the PAINAD scale was found (p > 0.05). Between 97.3% and 96.2% of patients with pain on the PAINAD scale also showed pain based on the sTNF-RII levels; in all of them, sIgA levels did not fit the logistic models. Therefore, the correlation highlights the usefulness of this scale and confirms the usefulness of sTNF-RII and sIgA as biomarkers of pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: dementia; pain; pain assessment in advanced dementia (PAINAD); biomarkers; nursing dementia; pain; pain assessment in advanced dementia (PAINAD); biomarkers; nursing
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MDPI and ACS Style

Cantón-Habas, V.; Rich-Ruiz, M.; Moreno-Casbas, M.T.; Ramírez-Expósito, M.J.; Martínez-Martos, J.M.; Carrera-González, M.D.P. Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071424

AMA Style

Cantón-Habas V, Rich-Ruiz M, Moreno-Casbas MT, Ramírez-Expósito MJ, Martínez-Martos JM, Carrera-González MDP. Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(7):1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071424

Chicago/Turabian Style

Cantón-Habas, Vanesa, Manuel Rich-Ruiz, María T. Moreno-Casbas, María J. Ramírez-Expósito, Jose M. Martínez-Martos, and María D.P. Carrera-González. 2021. "Correlation between Biomarkers of Pain in Saliva and PAINAD Scale in Elderly People with Cognitive Impairment and Inability to Communicate" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 7: 1424. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10071424

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