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Review

Changes in EEG Recordings in COVID-19 Patients as a Basis for More Accurate QEEG Diagnostics and EEG Neurofeedback Therapy: A Systematic Review

1
Department of Pathophysiology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Medical College of Rzeszow University, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
2
Department of Biology, Institute of Medical Sciences, Medical College of Rzeszow University, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
3
Student Research Club “Reh-Tech”, Medical College of Rzeszow University, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
4
Department of Neurosurgery, Institute of Medical Sciences, Medical College of Rzeszow University, 35-959 Rzeszow, Poland
5
Department of Neurosurgery, Faculty of Medicine, Saarland University, 06841 Saarbrücken, Germany
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Indre Bileviciute-Ljungar
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(6), 1300; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061300
Received: 11 February 2021 / Revised: 5 March 2021 / Accepted: 10 March 2021 / Published: 22 March 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Long-Term COVID-19: The Lasting Health Impacts of COVID-19)
Introduction and purpose: The SARS-CoV-2 virus is able to cause abnormalities in the functioning of the nervous system and induce neurological symptoms with the features of encephalopathy, disturbances of consciousness and concentration and a reduced ability to sense taste and smell as well as headaches. One of the methods of detecting these types of changes in COVID-19 patients is an electroencephalogram (EEG) test, which allows information to be obtained about the functioning of the brain as well as diagnosing diseases and predicting their consequences. The aim of the study was to review the latest research on changes in EEG in patients with COVID-19 as a basis for further quantitative electroencephalogram (QEEG) diagnostics and EEG neurofeedback training. Description of the state of knowledge: Based on the available scientific literature using the PubMed database from 2020 and early 2021 regarding changes in the EEG records in patients with COVID-19, 17 publications were included in the analysis. In patients who underwent an EEG test, changes in the frontal area were observed. A few patients were not found to be responsive to external stimuli. Additionally, a previously non-emerging, uncommon pattern in the form of continuous, slightly asymmetric, monomorphic, biphasic and slow delta waves occurred. Conclusion: The results of this analysis clearly indicate that the SARS-CoV-2 virus causes changes in the nervous system that can be manifested and detected in the EEG record. The small number of available articles, the small number of research groups and the lack of control groups suggest the need for further research regarding the short and long term neurological effects of the SARS-CoV-2 virus and the need for unquestionable confirmation that observed changes were caused by the virus per se and did not occur before. The presented studies described non-specific patterns appearing in encephalograms in patients with COVID-19. These observations are the basis for more accurate QEEG diagnostics and EEG neurofeedback training. View Full-Text
Keywords: QEEG; neurofeedback; COVID-19; EEG record; EEG neurofeedback training; neurological diseases QEEG; neurofeedback; COVID-19; EEG record; EEG neurofeedback training; neurological diseases
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kopańska, M.; Banaś-Ząbczyk, A.; Łagowska, A.; Kuduk, B.; Szczygielski, J. Changes in EEG Recordings in COVID-19 Patients as a Basis for More Accurate QEEG Diagnostics and EEG Neurofeedback Therapy: A Systematic Review. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061300

AMA Style

Kopańska M, Banaś-Ząbczyk A, Łagowska A, Kuduk B, Szczygielski J. Changes in EEG Recordings in COVID-19 Patients as a Basis for More Accurate QEEG Diagnostics and EEG Neurofeedback Therapy: A Systematic Review. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(6):1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061300

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kopańska, Marta, Agnieszka Banaś-Ząbczyk, Anna Łagowska, Barbara Kuduk, and Jacek Szczygielski. 2021. "Changes in EEG Recordings in COVID-19 Patients as a Basis for More Accurate QEEG Diagnostics and EEG Neurofeedback Therapy: A Systematic Review" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 6: 1300. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10061300

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