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Cardiac Complications Following Cardiac Surgery Procedures
Article

Perioperative Individualized Goal Directed Therapy for Cardiac Surgery: A Historical-Prospective, Comparative Effectiveness Study

1
Department of Anesthesiology, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
2
Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Loma Linda University Medical Center, Loma Linda, CA 92354, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Giuseppe Santarpino
J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10(3), 400; https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030400
Received: 31 December 2020 / Revised: 18 January 2021 / Accepted: 18 January 2021 / Published: 21 January 2021
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Updates on Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery)
Introduction: Cardiac surgery patients are at increased risk for post-operative complications and prolonged length of stay. Perioperative goal directed therapy (GDT) has demonstrated utility for non-cardiac surgery, however, GDT is not common for cardiac surgery. We initiated a quality improvement (QI) project focusing on the implementation of a GDT protocol, which was applied from the immediate post-bypass period into the intensive care unit (ICU). Our hypothesis was that this novel GDT protocol would decrease ICU length of stay and possibly improve postoperative outcomes. Methods: This was a historical prospective, QI study for patients undergoing cardiac surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Integral to the QI project was education towards all associated providers on the concepts related to GDT. The protocol involved identifying patient specific targets for cardiac index and mean arterial pressure. These targets were maintained from the post-CPB period to the first 12 h in the ICU. Statistical comparisons were performed between the year after GDT therapy was launched to the last two years prior to protocol implementation. The primary outcome was ICU length of stay. Results: There was a significant decrease in ICU length of stay when comparing the year after the protocol initiation to years prior, from a median of 6.19 days to 4 days (2017 vs. 2019, p < 0.0001), and a median of 5.88 days to 4 days (2018 vs. 2019, p < 0.0001). Secondary outcomes demonstrated a significant reduction in total administered volumes of inotropic medication(milrinone). All other vasopressors demonstrated no differences across years. Hospital length of stay comparisons did not demonstrate a significant reduction. Conclusion: These results suggest that an individualized goal directed therapy for cardiac surgery patients can reduce ICU length of stay and decrease amount of inotropic therapy. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiac anesthesia; adult cardiac care; adult critical care; hemodynamic monitoring; goal directed therapy cardiac anesthesia; adult cardiac care; adult critical care; hemodynamic monitoring; goal directed therapy
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MDPI and ACS Style

Ramsingh, D.; Hu, H.; Yan, M.; Lauer, R.; Rabkin, D.; Gatling, J.; Floridia, R.; Martinez, M.; Dorotta, I.; Razzouk, A. Perioperative Individualized Goal Directed Therapy for Cardiac Surgery: A Historical-Prospective, Comparative Effectiveness Study. J. Clin. Med. 2021, 10, 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030400

AMA Style

Ramsingh D, Hu H, Yan M, Lauer R, Rabkin D, Gatling J, Floridia R, Martinez M, Dorotta I, Razzouk A. Perioperative Individualized Goal Directed Therapy for Cardiac Surgery: A Historical-Prospective, Comparative Effectiveness Study. Journal of Clinical Medicine. 2021; 10(3):400. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030400

Chicago/Turabian Style

Ramsingh, Davinder, Huayong Hu, Manshu Yan, Ryan Lauer, David Rabkin, Jason Gatling, Rosario Floridia, Mckinzey Martinez, Ihab Dorotta, and Anees Razzouk. 2021. "Perioperative Individualized Goal Directed Therapy for Cardiac Surgery: A Historical-Prospective, Comparative Effectiveness Study" Journal of Clinical Medicine 10, no. 3: 400. https://doi.org/10.3390/jcm10030400

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