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Open AccessArticle

Chitosan Upregulates the Genes of the ROS Pathway and Enhances the Antioxidant Potential of Grape (Vitis vinifera L. ‘Touriga Franca’ and ’Tinto Cão’) Tissues

1
Centro de Química de Vila Real (CQ-VR), Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801, Vila Real, Portugal
2
Departamento de Agronomia, Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801, Vila Real, Portugal
3
CoLAB Vines&Wines, Associação para o Desenvolvimento da Viticultura Duriense (ADVID), Régia Douro Park, 5000-033, Vila Real, Portugal
4
Centro de Investigação e Tecnologias Agroambientais e Biológicas (CITAB), Universidade de Trás-os-Montes e Alto Douro (UTAD), Quinta de Prados, 5000-801, Vila Real, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(11), 525; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8110525
Received: 13 October 2019 / Revised: 28 October 2019 / Accepted: 1 November 2019 / Published: 3 November 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Plant)
Chitosan is an environmentally-friendly active molecule that has been explored for numerous agricultural uses. Its use in crop protection is well-known, however, other properties, such as bioactivity, deserve attention. Moreover, the modes of actions of chitosan remain to be elucidated. The present study assessed the levels of total phenolic compounds, the antioxidant potential, and the expression of reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging genes in the berries (skins and seeds), leaves, cluster stems, and shoots upon chitosan application on two red grapevine varieties (Touriga Franca and Tinto Cão). The application of chitosan on the whole vine before and after veraison led to the increased levels of polyphenols, anthocyanins, and tannins in Tinto Cão berries, and polyphenols and tannins in Touriga Franca berries, respectively. CUPric Reducing Antioxidant Capacity (CUPRAC) and Ferric Reducing Antioxidant Power (FRAP) assays indicated an increase in the antioxidant potential of berries. With the exception of ascorbate peroxidase (APX), all the ROS pathway genes tested, i.e., iron-superoxide dismutase (Fe-SOD), copper-zinc-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR), glutaredoxin (Grx), respiratory burst oxidase (Rboh), amine oxidase (AO), peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO), were found up-regulated in chitosan-treated berries. Results from the analyses of leaves, stems, and shoots revealed that chitosan not only induced the synthesis of phenolic compounds but also acted as a facilitator for the transfer of polyphenols from the leaves to the berries.
Keywords: chitosan; elicitor; Vitis vinifera L.; antioxidant activity; secondary metabolites; anthocyanins; ROS pathway; polyphenols; tannins chitosan; elicitor; Vitis vinifera L.; antioxidant activity; secondary metabolites; anthocyanins; ROS pathway; polyphenols; tannins
MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, R.K.; Soares, B.; Goufo, P.; Castro, I.; Cosme, F.; Pinto-Sintra, A.L.; Inês, A.; Oliveira, A.A.; Falco, V. Chitosan Upregulates the Genes of the ROS Pathway and Enhances the Antioxidant Potential of Grape (Vitis vinifera L. ‘Touriga Franca’ and ’Tinto Cão’) Tissues. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 525.

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