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Open AccessArticle

Short-Term Low Temperature Induces Nitro-Oxidative Stress that Deregulates the NADP-Malic Enzyme Function by Tyrosine Nitration in Arabidopsis thaliana

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Group of Biochemistry and Cell Signaling in Nitric Oxide, Department of Experimental Biology, Center for Advanced Studies in Olive Grove and Olive Oils, Faculty of Experimental Sciences, University of Jaén, Campus “Las Lagunillas”, s/n, E-23071 Jaén, Spain
2
Institute of Biotechnology, Department of Organic Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Granada, E-18071 Granada, Spain
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Group of Antioxidants, Free Radicals, and Nitric Oxide in Biotechnology, Food and Agriculture, Department of Biochemistry, Cell and Molecular Biology of Plants, Estación Experimental del Zaidín, CSIC, C/Profesor Albareda 1, E-18080 Granada, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Antioxidants 2019, 8(10), 448; https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox8100448
Received: 1 August 2019 / Revised: 12 September 2019 / Accepted: 20 September 2019 / Published: 1 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Oxidative Stress in Plant)
Low temperature (LT) negatively affects plant growth and development via the alteration of the metabolism of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (ROS and RNS). Among RNS, tyrosine nitration, the addition of an NO2 group to a tyrosine residue, can modulate reduced nicotinamide-dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-generating systems and, therefore, can alter the levels of NADPH, a key cofactor in cellular redox homeostasis. NADPH also acts as an indispensable electron donor within a wide range of enzymatic reactions, biosynthetic pathways, and detoxification processes, which could affect plant viability. To extend our knowledge about the regulation of this key cofactor by this nitric oxide (NO)-related post-translational modification, we analyzed the effect of tyrosine nitration on another NADPH-generating enzyme, the NADP-malic enzyme (NADP-ME), under LT stress. In Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings exposed to short-term LT (4 °C for 48 h), a 50% growth reduction accompanied by an increase in the content of superoxide, nitric oxide, and peroxynitrite, in addition to diminished cytosolic NADP-ME activity, were found. In vitro assays confirmed that peroxynitrite inhibits cytosolic NADP-ME2 activity due to tyrosine nitration. The mass spectrometric analysis of nitrated NADP-ME2 enabled us to determine that Tyr-73 was exclusively nitrated to 3-nitrotyrosine by peroxynitrite. The in silico analysis of the Arabidopsis NADP-ME2 protein sequence suggests that Tyr73 nitration could disrupt the interactions between the specific amino acids responsible for protein structure stability. In conclusion, the present data show that short-term LT stress affects the metabolism of ROS and RNS, which appears to negatively modulate the activity of cytosolic NADP-ME through the tyrosine nitration process. View Full-Text
Keywords: NADP malic enzyme; low temperature; nitric oxide; tyrosine nitration; peroxynitrite; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; nitro-oxidative stress NADP malic enzyme; low temperature; nitric oxide; tyrosine nitration; peroxynitrite; reactive oxygen species; reactive nitrogen species; nitro-oxidative stress
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Begara-Morales, J.C.; Sánchez-Calvo, B.; Gómez-Rodríguez, M.V.; Chaki, M.; Valderrama, R.; Mata-Pérez, C.; López-Jaramillo, J.; Corpas, F.J.; Barroso, J.B. Short-Term Low Temperature Induces Nitro-Oxidative Stress that Deregulates the NADP-Malic Enzyme Function by Tyrosine Nitration in Arabidopsis thaliana. Antioxidants 2019, 8, 448.

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