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Brain Sci. 2018, 8(9), 163;

Sex Differences and the Influence of Sex Hormones on Cognition through Adulthood and the Aging Process

Monash Alfred Psychiatry Research Centre, Central Clinical School, Monash University and The Alfred Hospital, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2018 / Revised: 23 August 2018 / Accepted: 23 August 2018 / Published: 28 August 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sex Differences in the Healthy and Diseased Brain)
Full-Text   |   PDF [235 KB, uploaded 28 August 2018]


Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis that regulate reproductive function have multiple effects on the development, maintenance and function of the brain. Sex differences in cognitive functioning have been reported in both health and disease, which may be partly attributed to sex hormones. The aim of the current paper was to provide a theoretical review of how sex hormones influence cognitive functioning across the lifespan as well as provide an overview of the literature on sex differences and the role of sex hormones in cognitive decline, specifically in relation to Alzheimer’s disease (AD). A summary of current hormone and sex-based interventions for enhancing cognitive functioning and/or reducing the risk of Alzheimer’s disease is also provided. View Full-Text
Keywords: sex differences; sex hormones; aging; cognition sex differences; sex hormones; aging; cognition
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Gurvich, C.; Hoy, K.; Thomas, N.; Kulkarni, J. Sex Differences and the Influence of Sex Hormones on Cognition through Adulthood and the Aging Process. Brain Sci. 2018, 8, 163.

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