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Kappa Free Light Chains and IgG Combined in a Novel Algorithm for the Detection of Multiple Sclerosis
Review

Recent Advances in Antigen-Specific Immunotherapies for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis

1
Chemical Process and Energy Resources Institute, Centre for Research and Technology Hellas, P.O. Box 60361, 57001 Thessaloniki, Greece
2
Department of Chemical Engineering, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki, Greece
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(6), 333; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060333
Received: 5 May 2020 / Revised: 22 May 2020 / Accepted: 26 May 2020 / Published: 29 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Multiple Sclerosis Research—Series I)
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system and is considered to be the leading non-traumatic cause of neurological disability in young adults. Current treatments for MS comprise long-term immunosuppressant drugs and disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) designed to alter its progress with the enhanced risk of severe side effects. The Holy Grail for the treatment of MS is to specifically suppress the disease while at the same time allow the immune system to be functionally active against infectious diseases and malignancy. This could be achieved via the development of immunotherapies designed to specifically suppress immune responses to self-antigens (e.g., myelin antigens). The present study attempts to highlight the various antigen-specific immunotherapies developed so far for the treatment of multiple sclerosis (e.g., vaccination with myelin-derived peptides/proteins, plasmid DNA encoding myelin epitopes, tolerogenic dendritic cells pulsed with encephalitogenic epitopes of myelin proteins, attenuated autologous T cells specific for myelin antigens, T cell receptor peptides, carriers loaded/conjugated with myelin immunodominant peptides, etc.), focusing on the outcome of their recent preclinical and clinical evaluation, and to shed light on the mechanisms involved in the immunopathogenesis and treatment of multiple sclerosis. View Full-Text
Keywords: multiple sclerosis; autoimmune diseases; antigen-specific immunotherapies; tolerogenic vaccines; tolerance induction; central nervous system; myelin peptides; myelin basic protei; proteolipid protein; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein multiple sclerosis; autoimmune diseases; antigen-specific immunotherapies; tolerogenic vaccines; tolerance induction; central nervous system; myelin peptides; myelin basic protei; proteolipid protein; myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kammona, O.; Kiparissides, C. Recent Advances in Antigen-Specific Immunotherapies for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 333. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060333

AMA Style

Kammona O, Kiparissides C. Recent Advances in Antigen-Specific Immunotherapies for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(6):333. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060333

Chicago/Turabian Style

Kammona, Olga, and Costas Kiparissides. 2020. "Recent Advances in Antigen-Specific Immunotherapies for the Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis" Brain Sciences 10, no. 6: 333. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10060333

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