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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Rehabilitation with Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Molecular Mechanism of Apoptosis in Post-Stroke Patients

1
Biohazard Prevention Centre, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
2
Department of Molecular Genetics, Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
3
Department of Neurological Rehabilitation, Medical University of Lodz, Milionowa 14, 93-113 Lodz, Poland
4
Military Institute of Armament Technology, Prymasa Stefana Wyszyńskiego 7, 05-220 Zielonka, Poland
5
Department of General Biochemistry, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Pomorska 141/143, 90-236 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 266; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10050266
Received: 2 April 2020 / Revised: 20 April 2020 / Accepted: 24 April 2020 / Published: 30 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Stroke Treatments and Therapies)
Apoptosis in acute stroke is associated with a negative prognosis and is correlated with the severity of the neurological deficit. However, there is no evidence that indicates that, in the subacute phase of the stroke, the apoptosis process might activate neuroplasticity. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the effect of an extremely low frequency electromagnetic field (ELF-EMF) on the molecular mechanism of apoptosis, as used in the rehabilitation of post-stroke patients. Patients with moderate stroke severity (n = 48), 3–4 weeks after incident, were enrolled in the analysis and divided into ELF-EMF and non-ELF-EMF group. The rehabilitation program in both groups involves the following: kinesiotherapy—30 min; psychological therapy—15 min; and neurophysiological routines—60 min. Additionally, the ELF-EMF group was exposed to an ELF-EMF (40 Hz, 5 mT). In order to assess the apoptosis gene expression level, we measured the mRNA expression of BAX, BCL-2, CASP8, TNFα, and TP53. We found that ELF-EMF significantly increased the expression of BAX, CASP8, TNFα, and TP53, whereas the BCL-2 mRNA expression after ELF-EMF exposition remained at a comparable level in both groups. Thus, we suggest that increasing the expression of pro-apoptotic genes in post-stroke patients promotes the activation of signaling pathways involved in brain plasticity processes. However, further research is needed to clarify this process. View Full-Text
Keywords: extremely low frequency electromagnetic field; apoptosis; neuroplasticity; stroke extremely low frequency electromagnetic field; apoptosis; neuroplasticity; stroke
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Cichon, N.; Synowiec, E.; Miller, E.; Sliwinski, T.; Ceremuga, M.; Saluk-Bijak, J.; Bijak, M. Effect of Rehabilitation with Extremely Low Frequency Electromagnetic Field on Molecular Mechanism of Apoptosis in Post-Stroke Patients. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 266.

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