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Open AccessArticle

TGF-β Promotes the Proliferation of Microglia In Vitro

1
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, 8-35-1 Sakuragaoka, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan
2
Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, Japanese Red Cross Kagoshima Hospital, Kagoshima 891-0133, Japan
3
Department of Medical Joint Materials, Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Kagoshima University, Kagoshima 890-8520, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(1), 20; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10010020
Received: 30 November 2019 / Revised: 21 December 2019 / Accepted: 27 December 2019 / Published: 30 December 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroglia)
The activation and proliferation of microglia is characteristic of the early stages of brain pathologies. In this study, we aimed to identify a factor that promotes microglial activation and proliferation and examined the in vitro effects on these processes. We cultured microglial cell lines, EOC 2 and SIM-A9, with various growth factors and evaluated cell proliferation, death, and viability. The results showed that only transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) caused an increase in the in vitro proliferation of both microglial cell lines. It has been reported that colony-stimulating factor 1 promotes the proliferation of microglia, while TGF-β promotes both proliferation and inhibition of cell death of microglia. However, upon comparing the most effective doses of both (assessed from the proliferation assay), we identified no statistically significant difference between the two factors in terms of cell death; thus, both have a proliferative effect on microglial cells. In addition, a TGF-β receptor 1 inhibitor, galunisertib, caused marked inhibition of proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, indicating that inhibition of TGF-β signalling reduces the proliferation of microglia. Therefore, galunisertib may represent a promising therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases via inhibition of nerve injury-induced microglial proliferation, which may result in reduced inflammatory and neuropathic and cancer pain. View Full-Text
Keywords: transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β); galunisertib; microglia; central nervous system; proliferation transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β); galunisertib; microglia; central nervous system; proliferation
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Bureta, C.; Setoguchi, T.; Saitoh, Y.; Tominaga, H.; Maeda, S.; Nagano, S.; Komiya, S.; Yamamoto, T.; Taniguchi, N. TGF-β Promotes the Proliferation of Microglia In Vitro. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 20.

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