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Open AccessArticle

High-Speed Holographic Shape and Full-Field Displacement Measurements of the Tympanic Membrane in Normal and Experimentally Simulated Pathological Ears

1
Center for Holographic Studies and Laser Micro-mechaTronics (CHSLT), Worcester, MA 01609, USA
2
Mechanical Engineering Department, Worcester Polytechnic Institute, Worcester, MA 01609, USA
3
Faculty of Mechatronics, Informatics and Interdisciplinary Studies, Technical University of Liberec, Liberec 46117, Czech Republic
4
Systems Design Engineering Department, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1, Canada
5
Eaton-Peabody Laboratory, Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Boston, MA 02114, USA
6
Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02114, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(14), 2809; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9142809
Received: 15 June 2019 / Revised: 7 July 2019 / Accepted: 10 July 2019 / Published: 13 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue High-speed Optical 3D Shape and Deformation Measurement)
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Abstract

To improve the understanding of the middle-ear hearing mechanism and assist in the diagnosis of middle-ear diseases, we are developing a high-speed digital holographic (HDH) system to measure the shape and acoustically-induced transient displacements of the tympanic membrane (TM). In this paper, we performed measurements on cadaveric human ears with simulated common middle-ear pathologies. The frequency response function (FRF) of the normalized displacement by the stimulus (sound pressure) at each measured pixel point of the entire TM surface was calculated and the complex modal indicator function (CMIF) of the middle-ear system based on FRFs of the entire TM surface motions was used to differentiate different middle-ear pathologies. We also observed changes in the TM shape and the surface motion pattern before and after various middle-ear manipulations. The observations of distinguishable TM shapes and motion patterns in both time and frequency domains between normal and experimentally simulated pathological ears support the development of a quantitative clinical holography-based apparatus for diagnosing middle-ear pathologies. View Full-Text
Keywords: frequency transfer functions; high-speed digital holography; human tympanic membrane; middle-ear pathologies frequency transfer functions; high-speed digital holography; human tympanic membrane; middle-ear pathologies
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Tang, H.; Razavi, P.; Pooladvand, K.; Psota, P.; Maftoon, N.; Rosowski, J.J.; Furlong, C.; Cheng, J.T. High-Speed Holographic Shape and Full-Field Displacement Measurements of the Tympanic Membrane in Normal and Experimentally Simulated Pathological Ears. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2809.

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