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Open AccessArticle

Study on Low-Speed Stability of a Motorcycle

College of Industrial Technology, Nihon University, 1-2-1 Izumi-cho, Narashino-shi, Chiba 275-8575, Japan
Research and Development, TVS Motor Company Ltd., Harita, Hosur 635109, Tamil Nadu, India
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2278;
Received: 29 April 2019 / Revised: 26 May 2019 / Accepted: 28 May 2019 / Published: 3 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Mechanical Systems Dynamics)
The increased number of vehicles and poor road conditions in many countries result in slow moving traffic. At low-speeds, riding a motorcycle requires continuous input from a rider to achieve stability, which causes fatigue to the rider. Therefore, in this research, the low-speed stability of a motorcycle is studied using a theoretical and experimental approach to identify the parameters that can reduce the rider’s effort. Initially, a linear mathematical model of the motorcycle and rider system is presented; wherein, the equation of motion for the stability of the system in roll direction is derived. The open-loop and closed-loop poles from the equation are calculated to determine the regions for the low-speed stability. Subsequently, experiments are conducted on the motorcycle instrumented with the required sensors, on a straight path at speeds below 10 km/h. The input and output parameters from the experimental data are analyzed using a statistical method. Steering angle and steering torque are the input parameters; roll and yaw angles and their corresponding velocities are the output parameters selected for the analysis. Correlation and lead time between the input and output parameters are compared to identify the parameters useful for the rider to attain the low-speed stability. The results obtained from the experimental analysis validate the mathematical model. In addition, these findings also validate that the input parameters required to control the motorcycle to achieve low-speed stability can be estimated using the identified output parameters. View Full-Text
Keywords: low-speed stability; balancing; motorcycle dynamics; rider control low-speed stability; balancing; motorcycle dynamics; rider control
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Singhania, S.; Kageyama, I.; Karanam, V.M. Study on Low-Speed Stability of a Motorcycle. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2278.

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